Few people can call all hormones in memory, playing a key role in the human body. But, most likely, there is no woman who would not know such names like estrogen, progesterone or androgen, actively affecting its daily functioning.
The role of sex hormones in the female organism
Paulic ripening, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, climax or overall: health and beauty - all these processes and conditions depend on the specific level and permanent fluctuation of female sex hormones. They are responsible not only for appearance, characteristic women's features or reproductive abilities, but also for many other important processes occurring in the female organism.
Hormones can both improve and worsen the condition of the skin and hair; positively and adversely affect overall states; Rapid or lower libido and finally contribute to or prevent pregnancy and be responsible for various diseases.
So that the female organism function is effective, it is necessary for a stable hormonal balance. That is why it is important to know the functions of individual female hormones, familiarize yourself with their standards, testing forms, options for controlling the correct concentration in the body.
Find out what the names such as estrogens, progesterone, androgens and prolactin mean, and find out why these hormones are responsible in the body.
Women's sex hormones - perpetrators of a long hormonal storm
We can say that hormones control all your life. Although this simplification is not the concept, it does not differ from the truth. The endocrine system is complex and is responsible for a number of functions in the human body, and in general it directly affects the hormonal balance. Therefore, the endocrine system is often checked primarily in the presence of symptoms, both physical and mental.
This can tell a lot of women who, both at the stage of puberty, and throughout their adult life are constantly under the influence. Hormonal oscillations . After all, in emotional disruptions, headaches and other unpleasant situations are primarily the women's sex hormones.
How to allocate female hormones among common hormones and distinguish them from male?
Start standing with what sex hormones are in general.
Sex hormones, also called steroid hormones, secreted mainly by female and men's gonads, ovaries and seeds, respectively, with the participation of pituitary glands, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.
Already at this stage, it can be noted that sex hormones are produced in both women's and in a male body. We call them female or male depends first of all of their concentration in the body of both sexes and from performing certain roles. And it is the level of these sex hormones that determines the development of all widely understood male and female characteristics.
Hormones influence, among other things, on a female or male appearance and on the proper functioning of the reproductive system (male and female), as well as numerous processes occurring in the human body.
Among the female sex hormones, most important are:
In addition to the above, gonadotropic hormones should also be present, that is, FSH (follicle-sustamulating hormone) and LH (LUTROPIN). It is worth adding to this set of thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and calcitonin (st).
Women's hormones are primarily responsible for:
- puberty and development of specific female qualities, including body structure,
- adequate ovarian function and their extinction during menopause,
- regulation of the menstrual cycle,
- pregnancy and its correct course
- proper blood clotting,
- Well-being, which is often associated with a change in mood and a whole range of various emotional states, and sometimes with mental health,
- calcium deposition in the bone system,
- libido, that is, a sense of sexual attraction,
- the proper work of the sebaceous glands, which affects, including on the quality of the skin and hair,
- Lipid exchange and many other processes.
Each of the hormones performs certain functions, but they are closely related to each other, so it is important to maintain a hormonal balance at the desired level.
Estrogens, or hormones of femininity, not only in terms of beauty and figures
Probably no sex hormones except progesterone are not related to femininity as much as estrogens. It is estrogens that have a huge impact not only on the development of female sexual signs, but also for many key processes in the female body.
Estrogens are actually a group of hormones, which includes the following compounds:
- Estetrol (produced only during pregnancy).
In women, these hormones are produced mainly in the ovaries, or rather in grappa follicles, as well as in the yellow body or placenta. In smaller quantities, they are produced in other parts of the body, such as adrenal glands, liver, chest glands and adhesive tissue cells.
The most important functions performed by estrogen in the female body include the impact on the development of sexual signs at the level of development of the fetus, immediately after birth and in adolescence. This means that these hormones are responsible for the typical female body structure and the entire figure, the development of genital organs, chest glands or the redistribution of adipose tissue, as well as for the development of the psyche and sexual entry.
In addition, estrogens, including:
- regulate the menstrual cycle and fertility,
- positively affect lipid exchange, increasing the level of "good" cholesterol (HDL) and reducing the concentration of "bad" (LDL),
- increase calcium deposition in the bones, stimulating their growth; Thus, preventing osteoporosis,
- accelerate metabolic processes,
- increase moisturizing vagina,
- increase blood coagulation
- positively affect the absorption of proteins,
- affect the growth of adipose tissue and its metabolism,
- responsible for the corresponding level of libido,
- affect emotional state
- increase the excitability of the smooth muscles of the uterus and uterine pipes,
- responsible for the conversion of carbohydrates,
- stimulate the operation of the breast,
- regulate body temperature,
- affect the correct permeability of cell membranes,
- Increase skin elasticity and reduce the secretion of the skin.
The physiological role of estrogen in certain phases of the menstrual cycle is especially important. They are responsible for growing the mucous membrane of the uterus (endometrial), its proper blood supply and nutrition, thereby preparing it to implantation of the fertilized egg.
This is directly related to the oscillations of the estrogen level at certain periods of the menstrual cycle. The smallest value is observed during menstrual bleeding, followed by a gradual increase until the peak reaches during ovulation. Without this process, it would be impossible to get pregnant or preserved pregnancy.
Estrogens also play an important role in the production of luteinizing hormone (LH), which is involved in ovulation and is responsible for the formation of a yellow body.
These hormones facilitate the preparation of a fertilized egg, and then help the fetus grow and develop. But during the pregnancy itself, estrogen also affect:
- Development of dairy ducts in lactic glands,
- Increase breast and rounding the figure,
- Improving skin and hair condition,
- Awakening maternal instinct.
During pregnancy, estrogen levels gradually increases. After childbirth, he drops sharply, which may be due to a significant decline in the mood of a young mother (the so-called Handra, which can be associated with the postpartum depression).
The decrease in estrogen is also directly related to menopause. During this period, the hormonal activity of the ovarian stops, which leads to a significant decrease in the development of estrogen. As a result, typical symptoms of menopauses appear and the risk of osteoporosis and heart disease increases.
What should be the correct concentration of estrogen?
It all depends on the phase of the menstrual cycle, as well as from the stage of development, age and health of the woman. Different periods of estrogen norms are different.
- Follicular phase: 30-120 ng / l (110-440 pmol / l),
- Ovulation: 130-370 ng / l (477-1358 PMOL / L),
- Lutein phase: 70-250 ng / l (257-917 pmol / l),
- Postmenopausal period: <10 ng / l.
- in the reproductive period of 17-200 ng / l,
- In the postmenopause of 7-40 ng / l.
Estivity: less than 80 ng / l.
The concentration of estrogen is checked in the diagnostic laboratory. The blood sample is analyzed. The examination must come in the morning on an empty stomach. It should also be remembered that the values in the results of analyzes should be directly compared with the standards specified on them, and the correct interpretation should be left at the discretion of the doctor.
What if estrogen level is too low or too high?
Both excess and disadvantage of such essential hormones may have negative consequences.
Excess estrogen most often occurs in women suffering from obesity, diabetes, arterial hypertension and in the presence of certain types of cancer, such as ovarian cancer. It is also due to the reception of inadequate doses of estrogen preparations.
Effects excess estrogen include:
- Menstrual disorders,
- headaches, convulsions, including migraine,
- nausea and vomiting
- Excessive growth of endometrial, which can lead to cancer changes,
- increased risk of blood clots and embolism,
- breast augmentation
- weight gain
- general ailment
- Mood swings.
Estrogen deficiency is physiological in women during the period of menopause, but the pathological age of reproductive age.
This may contribute to the following violations:
- irregular menstrual cycles or their absence,
- disappearance of 2 and 3-row sexual signs,
- Dry vagina,
- urinary tract infections,
- urinary incontinence
- tides and abundant sweating,
- sleep disorders
- reduced sexual attraction
- the inconstancy of mood and depressive states
- loss of elasticity of the chest
- deterioration of the quality of the skin,
- calcium disorders and osteoporosis,
- Heart disease as a result of elevated cholesterol.
Progesterone - hormone required to perform major problems, ovulation and pregnancy
Progesterone mentioned in connection with estrogen is no less important female hormone.
Progesterone Once called lutein, secreted by the ovaries, or rather the yellow body in Luthein and early stages of pregnancy, as well as the placenta at the later stages of pregnancy. To a lesser extent, it is produced in the core of the adrenal glands and the central nervous system.
What does this extremely important female sex hormone answer? The main tasks of progesterone:
- control and regulation of the menstrual cycle,
- influence on the offensive of ovulation
- Preparation of the mucous membrane of the uterus to enter and implantation of the fertilized egg,
- preservation of pregnancy throughout its term
- Relaxation of increasing uterus in the second half of pregnancy and braking its abbreviations,
- maintaining the correct structure and function of the cervix during pregnancy,
- Suppression of overdometrium excessive growth under the action of estrogen,
- In combination with estradiol, stimulates the milk gland and prepares it to lactation.
The effect of progesterone on the body of a woman depends primarily from the phase of the menstrual cycle.
During the follicular phase, the level of progesterone is low, and the ovaries mainly produce estrogen. Its level increases at the beginning of ovulation, which is a sign of the ovulation itself. The highest level of progesterone is achieved when the egg turns into a yellow body.
If the embryo does not fertilize and is not implanted, the concentration of progesterone is reduced and the so-called luteolysis of the yellow body occurs. In physiological conditions, a sharp decrease in the level of progesterone will lead to menstrual bleeding.
It is easy to notice that the level of progesterone constantly fluctuates. Progesterone standards at certain stages of the cycle are as follows:
- in the follicular phase: 0.28-0.72 ng / ml,
- in the collaboratory phase: 0.64-1.63 ng / ml,
- in lutein phase: 4.71-18.0 ng / ml.
The concentration of progesterone during pregnancy is different and amounts to:
- In the first trimester: 11.0-44.3 ng / ml,
- In the second trimester: 25.4-83.3 ng / ml,
- In the third trimester: 58.7-214 ng / ml.
During menopause, the low level of progesterone (according to analyzes).
Both too low and too high levels of progesterone can lead to a violation of the basic functions of the body. Progesterone deficit is one of the most frequent causes of fertility problems.
When it is not enough:
- menstruation becomes irregular, more abundant;
- There may be severe pain at the bottom of the abdomen, spasms of uterus, bleeding or vaginal bleeding;
- There is a problem with pregnancy;
- There are problems with too dry skin and excessive hair loss;
- It is possible to strengthen the symptoms of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS);
- Pregnancy can end the miscarriage.
The reason for too low the level of progesterone may be a shortage of a yellow body or problems with the placenta, pituitary dysfunction or hypothalamus or poisoning during pregnancy. If the excess of progesterone is not associated with physiological changes, such as pregnancy or the lutein phase, it may indicate a number of violations, including:
An edema may indicate the edema, caused by the water delay in the body or varicose veins.
Prolactin, an extremely important female hormone during breastfeeding and breastfeeding
A hormone, which, both in women and men, is connected with the effect on the reproductive function, is prolactin (PRL).
This is a peptide hormone, also known as luteotropic hormone (LTG), which is produced mainly in the front of the pituitary gland and to a lesser extent in the uterus and breasts in women, in a prostate in men and in the skin or in adipose tissue.
For many years, scientists have set more than 300 different tasks to this hormone, which can be divided into:
- Regulators - in the field of liquids (osmor regulation), immune system or behavioral functions.
Why is prolactin called women's hormone? Basically because it is responsible for many important functions during pregnancy and breastfeeding. First of all, the corresponding concentration of this hormone supports the operation of the yellow body, which is responsible for the production of progesterone, another needed hormone. To maintain pregnancy.
It is also worth knowing that the name of prolactin itself comes from direct connection with lactation, that is, with the function of stimulating milk production, which occurs in response to breastfeeding. Prolactin stimulates the growth of the mammary glands during pregnancy and causes lactation.
Moreover, in nursing women, he suppresses the secretion of the follicularity immuling hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), thereby blocking ovulation and menstruation, especially in the first months of the postpartum period.
Dopamine (hormone secreted by the hypothalamus) and estrogens affect the regulation of the prolactin level.
What are the norms prolactin? The concentration should be within 5-25 ng / ml, but it should be assessed on the basis of the standards presented according to the results of a specific test. Another thing is that prolactin does not always remain the same. It is quite natural, for example, an increase in prolactin during pregnancy and during breastfeeding.
The oscillations of this hormone are also observed during the menstrual cycle. Initially, he rises slightly, and in the second half gradually decreases. Thus, it is possible to allocate different rules of prolactin for women. It should be:
- in the follicular phase below 23 μg / l,
- in the lutein phase below 40 μg / l,
- And in the third trimester of pregnancy up to 400 μg / l.
It is also worth mentioning that prolctin values can be expressed in different units. Basically in ml / ml and in the hives / ml. They are recalculated by the formula 1 ng / ml = 20 mme / l.
Moreover, prolactin concentration is also associated with a circadian cycle. In the second half of the night, the hormone level rises, reaches the peak by the early morning, and then gradually decreases.
The changes in the level of this hormone also affect stress, sexual intercourse, abundant food or exercise.
Any violations require a test to the level of prolactin. The survey includes an analysis of a blood sample taken in the morning on an empty stomach, preferably between 8 and 12 hours.
What can mean excess prolactin? It all depends, of course, from the conditions described above. However, if the woman is not even pregnant, the elevated level of prolactin may mean:
- more than 25 ng / ml - the occurrence of irregular periods and non-radical cycles,
- more than 50 ng / ml - complete stopping of menstruation,
- More than 100 ng / ml - the risk of a pituitary tumor.
Too high levels of prolactin can manifest as:
- Menstrual disorders, including scant bleeding with a complete stop trend,
- Breast pain and sensitivity,
- Galathery, that is, the leakage of milk from the nipples, even outside pregnancy or breastfeeding,
- сNizhenization of sexual attraction ,
- Dry vagina, which can lead to pain during sexual intercourse.
It is worth knowing that excess prolactin in women can lead to problems with pregnancy. Hyperprolactinemia, the so-called increase in the level of prolactin hormone, may have the aforementioned physiological background:
- during pregnancy or breastfeeding, during sleep or exercise,
- In pathological conditions caused by various diseases, including adenoma of pituitary glands, renal or liver failure, hypothyroidism or reception of certain drugs.
Hypopronlactinemia, that is, a decrease in the concentration of prolactin below the norm is diagnosed much less frequently. This is mainly happening in people suffering from hypocituitarism.
Gonadotropins, that is, the hormones necessary for the correct childbirth
The name of gonadotropic hormones implies their key role in the human body. They are responsible for stimulating the activities of the genital glands of a person, that is, women's ovaries and male semennikov. They secrete the front fraction of the pituitary gland.
To gonadotropins, first of all, include:
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), that is, a follicle-stimulating hormone,
- Luteinizing hormone (LH), called Lutropine.
This group of hormones also includes chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) allocated during pregnancy.
The hormone of FSH in women is designed to stimulate the growth of follicles of ovaries, control their development and regulation of yellow body functions. Stimulates the secretion of estrogen grainy cells of ovarian follicles.
The levels of stimulation of blood follicles depend on the age of a woman and the phase of the menstrual cycle. FSH norms in women make up:
- in the follicular phase - below 12 me / l,
- in the ovulation phase - from 20 to 90 m / l,
- in the lutein phase - below 10 me / l,
- During the period of menopause - from 40 to 250 me / l (after menopause, the concentration of FSH increases),
- during pregnancy - trace concentrations.
The insufficient FSH level is usually associated with pituitary and / or hypothalamic deficiency. An excess, in turn, may indicate the primary or acquired lack of ovaries or inhibition of ovulation stimulation.
Hormone LG in women is primarily responsible for ovulation, and its main task is to adjust and control the secretion of progesterone. After the egg fell into the uterine pipe, Lutropein turns the granulose cells into lutein cells (which produce progesterone), and the cells of the inner layer into the shell of the follicle in paralutene cells (which produce estrogens).
The role of luteinizing hormone is also supported by the development of progesterone and estrogen with a yellow body.
As in the case of FSH, the concentration of lutropine depends on the time of cycle and the age of a woman. LG norms for women:
- in the follicular phase - up to 5-30 me / l,
- During ovulation - from 75 to 150 me / l,
- in the lutein phase - from 3 to 40 me / l,
- After menopause - 30-300 me / l.
Too low levels of lutropine may indicate damage to the pituitary or hypothalamus.
On the other hand, excess hormone LH may indicate insufficient ovarian activity or neoplastic changes in the pituitary gland.
Androgens, or Men's Hormones in the Women's Organization
The group of steroid genital hormones also includes androgens, that is, androgenic hormones.
They are associated primarily with male attributes, but they are found in both sexes, and their role is mainly in controlling the proper development of sexual signs of both men and women. In women, androgenic hormones are mainly produced by adrenal glands and to some extent with ovaries.
- Popular testosterone,
- Dehydroepiyandontendion (DHEA),
- Dihydrotestosterone (DGT).
Androstendion and Dihydrotestosterone play an important role in the female body, as they act as predecessors of female sex hormones, that is, estrogen. They are primarily responsible for launching and controlling the ripening process of girls, as well as the level of libido, mood, bone metabolism and the fertility of more mature women.
The total daily discharge of testosterone is about 100-400 μg. The testosterone level in women changes together with the course of the menstrual cycle. The lowest concentration is noted in the early follicular phase.
Testosterone norms in women make up:
- Free testosterone: 10.4-45,1 pmol / l,
- Total testosterone: 1-2.5 nmol / l.
In pregnant women, the testosterone level rises, and the highest level is achieved in the third trimester. In turn, during the period from 20 to 45 years, there is a decrease in the concentration of this hormone in the female body by 50%.
Should women check testosterone? Indications for testing the level of testosterone and other androgens in women are primarily:
- Girsutism, that is, the presence of excessive collaboration in typical areas of men, such as the area of lips and chin, forearm, hips, chest, belly, back and genitals;
- Masculinization, that is, the presence of male sexual signs in women's tertiary levels, such as the aforementioned excessive hair growth, characteristic of men, as well as an increase in the clitoris and sexual lips, a reduction in breasts, a decrease in voice tone, an increase in muscle mass, as well as the appearance of acne, seborrheic dermatitis or baldness of male type;
- Disorders of the menstrual cycle;
- Difficulties with pregnancy.
Violations in the core of adrenal glands and ovaries, including various types of cancer or polycystic ovarian syndrome, can be responsible for the too high level of androgens in women.
Due to the weak manifestation of androgen effects, including testosterone, in the female body, the symptoms of the deficit of these hormones can be easier. You may see, first of all: a decrease in sexual attraction, depression and mood oscillations, fatigue, disruption of the concentration of attention and memory or the overall shortage of energy.
Hormones of the thyroid gland - support for health and beauty or threat of fertility?
Thyroid hormones, including mainly triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and calcitonin (ST), are equally important for health, including for fertility and beauty.
All three are produced by the thyroid gland and perform various functions in the female organism. Their beneficial effects can be felt first of all:
- In the right functioning of calcium-phosphate exchange, that is, the metabolism of bones for which calcitonin is responsible;
- in the acceleration of metabolism, which contributes to reinforced calorie burning - in this case, triiodothyronine is leading;
- In maintaining the proper condition of the skin and hair, which thyroxine contributes.
However, endocrine disorders, including the abnormal levels of thyroid hormones, can lead to irregular menstruation, annovation and, therefore, to infertility. Moreover, even when it becomes possible to get pregnant, problems may arise with its preservation. Manifested by miscarriage or Premature childbirth .
Thyroid hormone norms:
- T3: 2-10 honey / l,
- T4: 5-12 μg / dL,
- CT: 8.3-22.0 pmol / l (30-80 pg / ml),
- TSH (thyrotropic hormone secreted by pituitary gland): 0.27-4.0 honey / l.
Depending on deviations in the level of thyroid hormones, there may be hyperactive or insufficient activity of the thyroid gland.
Diagnosis of female sex hormones - what tests and when to conduct?
Analysis of the concentration of female sex hormones is important at many stages of women's life, including:
- When anomalies in the body are found, which may indicate an excess or disadvantage of one of the hormones,
- During many unsuccessful attempts to get pregnant,
- with disorders of the menstrual cycle,
- during pregnancy
- in the perimenopausal period to check the level of hormones and a possible decision on the introduction of substitution hormone therapy,
- In cancer prevention.
The doctor specializing in hormones is an endocrinologist. The specialist can assign specific blood tests and indicate, among other things:
- At what point of the cycle you need to go to the laboratory,
- how to prepare for the test
- What time is the best to pass blood for analysis.
All this depends on the need to check the level of a particular hormone and an accurate analysis target.
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What is Klepsidra?
Klepsidra are water clock, measuring time by a pointer moving under the pressure of the current water inside the tank hidden from the eye. The name combines Greek words: Klepto - hiding, Hydor - water.
The simplest and complex designs of water watches were known from the second millennium BC. In countries of developed cultures: Greece, Mesopotamia, Egypt, India.
The simplest Klepsidra consisted of two vessels located at different levels. Water dripped out of the opening of the top into the bottom vessel.
The principle of operation of water watches
The water level alternately reached the marks in the wall, thereby counting the "expired" time intervals.
According to the design of Klepsidra are divided into two types.
- Water follows from the filled bowl into the tank. It drops it down, passes the mark from top to bottom, indicating equal intervals.
- The hemispherical vessel with the hole in the bottom floats in the tank and is filled with water.
The level of fluid in it rises from one mark to the other, pointing time.
Klepsides of the first type We used in ancient Greece, Egypt, Mesopotamia. The scale of the water mechanism was uneven. The droplet flow rate was influenced by the water pressure in the vessel.
Klepsides from the Egyptian Temple of Carnac. 14th century BC
In ancient Egypt, this problem was solved by replacing a cylindrical vessel with a capacity of a truncated cone.
The first of the found artifacts of such Klepsidra dates from 1380 a year BC It was discovered when excavations of the Tomb of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. The length of academic studies of Plato's students in the 3rd century BC. Meal invented Klepsidra - alarm clock.
The principle of the device Klepsidra - Platon's alarm.
The water filled the vessel, gradually moving the piston. After a certain time, the compressed air opened the valve and pulled out on the tube, removing loud sounds from it.
Water clock mechanic Ktezibia, who lived 2100 years ago.
In the Greeks and Romans, water clocks were determined for all speakers the time of public speeches. "Aquam Perda" (losing time) has become a winged expression for public discussions.
Ancient Klepsidra, "Measuring" Regulations.
A special minister stood with Klepsidra and notified when the water was completely pulled out of the vessel. "Your time has expired," the head of the Assembly immediately interrupted. Residents of the Greek city of Pompeii Water watches were read as a work of art, covering gems and gold ornaments.
Clepsidras of the second type The Asian region of the ancient world was invented in the Asian region.
Klepsyndrian Member States, 13th century.
Chinese water complex mechanisms are known from 2500 years BC.
Ancient chinese klepsidra.
Design devices included weights, chain suspensions, gears. The imperial palace was decorated with Klepsidra, the last bowl of which was located on the scales. The arrow moved on the scale and reached the mark "1 KE", which corresponded to 100 minutes.
Copper Water Watches of the Imperial Palace in China, 1799.
The sounds and contemplation of the transfusing water fascinated the congestion, tuned to reflect on the vehicles, the irrevocability of the "dripping" time.
In India, majestic water monuments were built. The filled vessels were struck by a variety of forms and allegorical representations. A unit of time in one of them was a complete immersion in the water of a skillfully made ship.
Palace Klepsider 13th century.
Water poured water into the pool when she sings the bird on the pavilion dome. From the pool through the torso of the diving duck water is going to the container hidden in the watch platform.
The most stunning monumental klexider in the form of an elephant is located in the Museum of IBN Battuta Moli. Dubai.
The design embodied all the knowledge and technologies of waterclocities of the time, the characteristic features of ancient civilizations.
An amazing way here is harmoniously neighboring Arabic numbers and revered deities: Indian elephant, Chinese dragon, Egyptian phoenix.
Water clock in the Middle Ages
Medieval Europe met an amazing dickey in the 809, when Khalif Garun - Al - Rashid sent as a gift to Klepsidra to the French king Carlo Great.
The hidden mechanism had a dial showing time, periodically from the inside on a metal grid with a ringing fell a ball. At noon, the gate was opened and knights left. Up until the 17th century, Klepsidra was widely used in all spheres of life. Newton showed interest in improving the design of the clock. Galilee used them by studying the laws of falling tel.
The advantages of water watches compared to sunshine:
- Recedned to perfection verified designs of reporting vessels.
- Amenities in use at any time of the day.
- Determining more accurate time.
- Ancient Klepsidra counted relatively large intervals. The Romans did not control moments and seconds.
In this article, we will try to trace the path from creating water hours to their amazing perfection, which was due to the development of science, technology and technology, as well as the needs of society in exact time counting. In the history of hours, it is precisely the development of water, a rather significant period of time is given.
It is significant to unknown where the history of water watches originates.
We will find the reference to the use of water watches in the ancient Babylon, we will find in the manuscript presented by the public Otto Negen Bauer. From the document it follows that about 640 BC. e. They already used water clock.
WATER WATCH: the history of creation. Water watches were containers in the form of cylinders, of which water slowly flowed. They were filled with water in the morning when the sun was boated. After all the water poured, a specially delivered man warned about it.
Water watches were used in the ancient Egypt. When excavations in the carnacius were detected alone from such hours. The history of the creation of these water watches is unknown, but the date of their manufacture is 1415-1380. BC. The clock was a bowl of alabaster with a small hole in the day.
Water clocks most often used in the commission of worship when it was necessary to strictly measured time. At prayer, one deity was relied on an hour.
Unlike sunny hours, water can be used at night. With night astronomical observations, the water clock was used as an additional device. In this regard, they were called "night clock" and had to be considered only 12 nightlings.
There were two types of water watches: filling and flowing. Filming water clock contained two tanks: the first capacity was set pretty high, and the second container was located under the first one. From the first container on the tube, located under the statue, water expired, filling the second capacity.
On the walls of the second container, a scale was applied with divisions to determine the level. In order, to what level the container was filled with water, and the time was determined.
The flowing water clock was represented from themselves the stone container in the form of a truncated cone with a small hole in the bottom, from which water flowed dropped. The capacitance in the form of a cone was necessary for the uniformity of water flowing. Due to the cone-imagination of the vessel, the water level decreases almost equally. Therefore, it was possible on the inside of the device to make markers at the same distance.
But the complexity was to take into account the different duration of the summer and winter hours. Night summer clock were shorter than winter, i.e. The length of the hour itself was not considered constant. The Egyptians came up with dividing divisions in the form of small points, 12 points (twelve hours) were one column, the columns were also 12 - these are months. Points that celebrated the night hours were applied in columns at different levels. Those. Water watches took into account the oscillation of the night duration at different times of the year.
In one manuscript there is a calculation for the manufacture of leakage water watches. According to this calculation, the vessel must be a truncated cone with the ratio of the base diameter to height 1: 3, i.e., with an angle at the base of 71 ° 34. "(Oxirin papyrus, 2nd or 3rd century of our era).
The history of the creation of water watches does not make information about how the inhabitants of Egypt found this form, which really makes it possible to flow out water with a fairly uniform decrease in the level. But, nevertheless, such a vessel did not give full uniformity of water level decay, a small error here had a place. The cone with the ratio of the diameter of the base to height, as 2: 9 would be much more accurate, but also such, not quite accurate water watches, as the story indicates, could meet the needs of the Egyptians.
So what date does the history of water watches originate? According to Chinese ancient documents, the water watches in China were known in 2696-2597 BC, their story is in the book "Zhowli" (the second century BC), telling about customs and ceremonies. It says that there are water watches that mark some segments that are divided by the time of the night. This is the most ancient of the famous documents that makes it possible that the history of water watches began at this time and in this region of the world.
In the quadrangular pool of hanging over it Vases evenly flowed water. On the walls on the walls of the pool, the water level corresponding to certain time intervals was observed. On the original water watches, where the flowing water was filled with a tank standing on the scales, Chinese documents of the XI century are told. BC e. The weight of the water in one pound was one "ke" (100 minutes translated on our calculus).
But the most common in China was water clock consisting of three or more tanks with water located at different heights. Each container had a hole from the side, through which the water was evenly pulled into the lower container. From the entire cascade of these tanks, the water was collected in the last, the latter. The scale applied on it, marked the water level (time).
On the territory of India, the water clock was done in the form of a small ship, which is descended into the container with water, began to gradually sink (since he had a hole). The unit of measurement was the time for which the ship concerned the bottom.
The first mention of the Greeks on Water Clocks (Klepsidre) is the history of 490-430. BC e. The Klepsidra design was simple: a clay vessel with several small holes in the day.
Water watches in ancient Greece were used in court to limit speakers speech time. In the army, where the night was divided into 4 minutes of shifts for three hours, the water clock was carried out by changing Karaulov. Later, the Greeks made a significant contribution to the history of water watches and their further improvement.
Using improved Klepsidra, Plato invented the first alarm clock in order to convene the morning conversations of his students. About 130 g. BC e., for the first time in history, automatic water clocks were designed, which showed time and served sound signals. Their author was Ktezibiy. The history of the creation of water watches of a complex device is firmly related to this name. To klepsides continuously showing time, it was necessary to comply with a number of conditions. Providing the filling of Klepsidra only to a certain level, Ktezibiy solved the problem of constancy of water pressure. It was necessary to monitor the purity of water. From the upper capacitance, the water with a constant jet expired in another vessel. In terms of water, it was determined. For the first time used gear and dial. In the lower capacity there was a float having a rod with a toothed rail and connected to a device showing time.
Then Ktezibiy has improved its watches, adding a universal dial, made in the form of a column installed on a pedestal, the emptiness under which the mechanism hid. Clock Ktezibia are like a starting point in the history of water watches on the path of their further improvement. Along the spiral lines of the scale deposited on this column, a pointer associated with the float was moved.
Spiral scales lines going around the column took into account and showed different water duration and summer clock. The column - the dial turned slightly every day, making an adjustment, according to the scale, on increasing or decreasing day and night hours. On columns were applied for 24 hours. For example, in the summer months, the pointer moved over the part of the column-dial, where the marks of the day hours were further from each other, the nightclock marks closer to each other, and in winter, on the contrary. The figurines of two cherubs stood near the column. Water dripping from the eye of the left Cherubechik slowly filled the cylindrical container under the pedestal; The piston that supports the right Cherube girl gradually rose, and a rod in his hand showed time on the dial. To prevent wear of holes from which water flowed, there was a frame of precious stones around them. At the occurrence of the 24th hour, the siphon quickly emptied the cylinder, the right cherube was lowered.
The gear system driven by a water wheel, which was poured from a siphon water, rotated the dial of the column so that the spiral lines of the scale stood up to the desired position for measuring the time intervals of the next day. In its water clock, Ktezibiy introduced a siphon, applied gear gear and precious stones.
But the history of water clock knows more amazing structures. Water clocks, which are written by ancient manuscript, made Archimedes were more difficult than ktezibia watches, with many moving figures and battle. They had a rich decoration. Through a system of hydraulic wheels related to the float, rising with a uniform influx of water, the ball with a ringing hitting the copper pelvis from the crow beak. At noon's occurrence at the base of the water clock, the statuette of the musician played on the flute. Twelve armed riders went out of their gates, each at a certain hour.
All this variety of water clock figures occurred at a specified time and was carried out using tipping vessels, floats and wheels. In the middle of the clock, the shooting movements took place through a tipping vessel, while a large float, which was in the upper vessel, was responsible for moving the statuette of the upper tier of water watches. In the lower tier there was a siphon. When the siphon was devastated every six o'clock, began to play flute.
Archimedes Water Clock could show the "local" time, or time changing depending on the time of year. Despite the fact that scientists have reason to doubt the authorship of Archimedes, however, the evidence that he did not build these water watches either.
At about the same historical period, pocket water watches were made, using herofil (III century. BC), doctor by profession, measured pulse patients with fever.
Water watches have become a necessary device that have received practical application in an antique society. The first water clock in Rome were manufactured in 159th BC. Their device was not distinguished by high complexity. The gear with an arrow attached to it was engaged in engaging with a rod cloth connected to the float. The flow of water pouring into a vessel with a float was regulated depending on the time of year. Rod with a float moving up to the prong in an hour, turned the gear and arrow on one position. In the pompays, at about the same time there were water clock, richly decorated with gold and precious stones.
In the Byzantine era, in the place of residence of the Ellinov (Greeks), built complex water clocks and their history was preserved thanks to the writer, the procopy, which lived on the border of the ancient and the Byzantine epoch, he told in his writings about the creation of monumental water "heraklovy" watches in the city. The name of the master who created them remains unknown. A scientist from Germany by the name Dils used a description of the proof and made the reconstruction of the "heraklovy" waterclock, describing them in their monograph. These water monumental watches, most likely, on a market area in Gaza, had a rather complicated device. The room in which the clock was located was fenced with sharp columns so that it was impossible to come close to them.
These water watches, like the Archimedian clock, had many moving each hour of figures. There were also doors (12 doors), in which a lamp appeared every night hour. Of the other twelve doors, showing daytime watches did Hercules arrived, made one of the twelve her feats and went back with the crown on the head, which he paused an eagle soaring over the appropriate door. Past of doors signed the God of Helios Sun. Every hour, Hercules hit the shred on the copper gougal in his right hand, which kept in his left hand, and the gorgon head, installed on the roof, rotated his eyes with every watch.
There were other automatically moving figures in these water watches. After the end of the twelve day, the figure of Diomeda came into motion, which is a pipe, announcing the arrival of dawns.
The further history of water watches tells that without the development of gnomony as science, and together with it geometry, trigonometry, mathematicians and mechanics, progress in creating high accuracy and complexity of water clocks would be impossible.
Europeans in the Middle Ages not only did not bring anything new to the waterclock device, but also lost the knowledge that they went to the legacy after the collapse of the Roman Empire. Few water watches were equipped only in major monasteries.
But the Arabs in the Middle Ages made water clocks of a rather complex device without the use of a toothed transmission. For the transfer of motion, floats, weights and counterweights were used on the ropes, perched through the pulley, rollers and blocks. Every hour was noted, as well as in the construction of gas, the discovery of one of the 12 doors, the outlet of the figure, which makes some actions and the fall of the metal ball in the pelvis.
There are data on twelve water watches created before the 1250th year. Some of them were located in Damascus on the tower of the mosque during the time of Saladin.
However, in the future, the successes of Muslims in mechanics were used to create and improve weights and astronomical instruments.
In medieval China in 1088, two astronomers were built water clocks, which, as the story testifies, was tracked not only the time, but also the movement of the heavenly sphere. In addition to his own time, they showed the sunrise and sunset, the time of year, the ratio of day and night watches inherent in this year. These water watches had in their device the prototype of the ratchet mechanism, which Europeans will begin to be used in the manufacture of mechanical clock.
At this, the history of water clock has not ended. In the future, the widespread water tower clock is obtained. In Europe, they will continue to use until the XVIII century, even after the invention of the mechanical clock, although the mechanism has been subjected to serious improvement.