Even experienced refills should be careful on the roads to avoid collisions with other cars. This rule also applies to drivers that control the machine with ABS (anti-lock system).
The principle of work ABS
On the icing road (as after the rain), braking becomes a problem for drivers. If you sharply click on the brake, the wheels are blocked and the machine begins to slide. As a supplement - lack of control over the machine. The wheels are blocked, it means that turning and maneuvers will not work. And if on the usual road it threatens only a collision with ahead of the next or standing obstacle, then a skid is inevitable on a slippery surface.
ABS is a blocking system. It works only with a sharp braking and removes blocking from the wheels. This allows you to control the car and safely take it from obstacles. But in order for the system to work, simultaneously execute two conditions:
- Pressed brake pedal.
- At least one blocked wheel.
When complying with these conditions, ABS works, which slightly lowers the brake pads, while maintaining the car handling.
But there is a system and disadvantages that should be considered:
- Reducing the system on an uneven road with potholes and stones, which leads to an increase in the braking route of the car. This is due to the fact that when the wheels cling to the stone and bounces, at this moment the ABS is activated. And when the wheel returns to the road, the clutch with the surface increases, and the braking force is already reduced. Therefore, it is recommended to overcome such obstacles at reduced speed.
- The system can recognize the type of coating, but not rebuilding on mixed roads. For example, if the car first falls on the ice, then on the asphalt, and then on the puddle, the system will work as if ice is everywhere. This reduces the efficiency of the ABS.
- Reducing the efficiency of the system in areas of the road covered with snow.
- The ABS stops working with a speed drop to 5 km / h. And if the car turns out to be on a slippery slope through which the machine confidently roll down, it will be impossible to slow down. In this case, you will have to look for another method of braking - handbrake or neutral speed on automatic transmission.
But the most important drawback of the system is excessive trust in her. Remember that ABS is a function of a car that, like any program, has a property to be bored and break. Trust, first of all, with your driver's instincts and always have a backup emergency braking plan. And never exceed the speed on slippery roads.
How to brake with ABS?
Emergency braking technique with ABS and without it is different. If your machine is missing the wheel unlocking system, then on a slippery surface to stop you need to quickly press the brake pedal. Put the brake into the floor can not - so you lose control over the car.
But with the installed system of emergency braking technology is different. You need to click smoothly on the brake pedal (and clutch, if any) until you stop and keep until a complete stop. And remember the few nuances:
- During emergency braking, you will hear a crunch - this is normal, so the ABS is triggered. No need to scare this sound and, moreover, you can not let the brake pedal.
- It is impossible to let go of the gas pedal until a complete stop. Even if the speed of the car has fallen hard, wait for the car braking, after which you can weaken push.
- Control the car. Remember that ABS makes it possible to control the machine, and not to go in one direction. Try to avoid collisions with other cars.
- Trust, above all, for yourself and your intuition. Do not forget that the system can bring at the most inopportune moment.
- Before turning, starting to slow down in 20-30 meters, slowly pressing the brake pedal. At the intersection, the system will provide a smooth maneuver without driving.
Also remember the basic rules of driving in winter:
- The distance between cars should be maximum do not count that the ABS will reduce the braking path. This may not happen, which will lead to a collision with another participant of movement.
- Do not exceed the speed, especially on a slippery road and with bad weather conditions. Better you will arrive to the destination by a little later than it will not come up at all.
- Carefully follow the situation on the road, do not be distracted. Many ignore the danger, exceeding the speed, which leads to a drift. Be prepared for any situation and think in advance the action plan.
- Change tires in a timely manner. In winter, on summer tires, it is very dangerous.
Follow the road and be especially attentive in the winter season!
With the onset of winter, the tensions on the roads increase significantly, because it is no longer possible to move along the snow-covered and places in the "summer" mode, and quickly change the driving style is far from every car owner. Due to the lack of a constant and high-quality clutch of wheels with road surface, braking, especially in emergency situations, can lead to loss of control over the vehicle. Therefore, with the onset of cold weather, at least Change the aggressive driving style to a calmer.
Experienced car owners with many years of experience are exactly what they do, beginners learn on their mistakes. In order to feel more confident on slippery and icing road, a constant practice is needed, since all the theoretical tips taken together will not allow to gain the desired experience, feel the car, intuitively feel the risk. It should be understood that despite Equipment of modern cars with a variety of systems that help in management, for example, ABS, should not blindly count on them.
ABS - Help or interference on ice
Equipment of car systems in management led to the fact that many, especially inexperienced drivers, began to trust her too much, forgetting many of the moments of safe driving. Should not forget that With the onset of frosts, it is necessary to replace the rubber on the studded options - this significantly reduces the brake albeit on the slippery road . In order to know how to slow down to brake with ABS, it will be familiar with the principle of work of this system, which is designed to prevent wheel blocking when braking and loss of control over the vehicle.
When trying to sharp braking on a standard car without ABS, the wheels are simply blocked, which leads to a sharp decrease in controllability and the drift of the vehicle. It is worth noting that the friction force is quite weak between the blocked tire and the road surface, so the fast stop of the car is almost impossible on a slippery road. Braking, which is carried out without blocking is more efficient than the slip on the icing coating of the road. In addition, it prevents uncontrolled gliding and drift of the car. About the pros and cons of ABS in detail in detail on the video:
To know how to brake with abs with maximum efficiency, you need to understand the principle of operation of this system, which is quite simple. On each of the vehicles of the car with ABS there are special protrusions on the type of gear teeth. When driving a car, they are moved under inductive sensors that are transmitted to the auto pulse control system. Sensors are several, and when the wheel in braking ceases to rotate, the pulse transmission stops, the bypass valves and the braking force weakens. It is at that moment that the driver hears a characteristic crackle. Thus, the ABS system prevents the wheel lock by allowing the driver to control the car control process.
How to brake on a car equipped with ABS
Before dealing with the question - how to brake in winter on the front drive, you should remember the simple rules of "winter" behavior on the road that modern drivers often neglect:
- abide by the distance, which differs from the summer slight distance;
- Rubber must correspond to the season - optionally studded, but continue to operate the car on summer tires in winter is unacceptable;
- avoid sharp braking when maneuvering, especially when entering turns;
- It should not be excessively putting on the brake pedal when the car overcomes the obstacles / irregularities of the road surface.
The last item is especially relevant for cars with ABS. It should not be naively to believe that if the car is new and expensive, all security systems available in it and the driver help will help maintain controllability in a critical situation when the driver itself does not show elementary attention to the road situation. In addition, there are some features other than the above that will allow you to slow down on ice with the ABS more correctly. These include the following:
- You should not let the brake or even weaken the effort on the pedals when the cod appears, which only indicates the correct operation of the ABS;
- Do not press the brake unnecessarily sharply - the force must be smooth and evenly increasing;
- You do not need to remove the leg with the brake pedal until the auto stops, if required;
- Relying on the ABS, should not be neglected by other actions aimed at reducing the speed / care from the collision.
Attention! The unconditional efficacy of ABS sharply decreases on such coatings, like sand, ice, expressed irregularities - braking on them should be carried out with the fact that the ABS can work incorrectly.
How to brake in winter on mechanics
When braking in the winter time, when the road is icing or snowing, it is necessary to understand that the braking path increases significantly, and the vehicle stops should begin in advance. Most optimally use a combined method of braking, that is, in addition to the brake pedal, the gearbox should be used, especially if the distance allows. Such braking includes not only pressing the brake pedal, but also the transition to reduced transmissions.
But it should be understood that lowering the programs should be gradually, with the corresponding indicators on the speedometer - if you sharply go to a low transmission, when the vehicle speed is high, there is a chance to "knock down" the engine, which will lead to a complete loss of controllability. In winter, it is necessary to completely forget about such a braking technique as "pedal to the floor." It is not only inefficient, but also dangerous, because when blocking wheels, the car becomes almost impossible.
To know how to brake on ice, if the car does not equip the ABS, you should remember how this system works. Quite often and intermittently press the brake when it is required to quickly reduce the speed to avoid the loss of controllability and slow down. Being on a slippery road it is very important to keep calm and avoid sharp presses on the brake pedal and movements with a steering wheel, remembering that such actions in most cases contribute to the loss of control over the car.
Special attention to complex areas of the road
If the movement takes place mainly in the urban art, it is necessary to observe special attentive at intersections. They represent an increased danger even in the summer, in the winter the risk of accidents increases here many times. To properly slow down with the ABS in winter, the process must be started in several tens of meters to the intersection itself. Press up a slightly slightly on the brake pedal, allowing everything else to make abs.
Important! If the machine slows down the jerks should not panic - this is a normal phenomenon, and any actions of the driver at this point can prevent a quick stop.
At the crossmes, it is necessary to observe special accuracy not only at the time of the stop. Do not seek to start at one first, barely red will flash. Other road users can easily have time to finish maneuver and completely stop moving, especially if their car is not equipped with ABS.
If your car is equipped with ABS system, but the icon is on the dashboard, as in the picture
For security reasons, you need to contact the nearest official one for the passage of computer diagnostics and troubleshooting in the braking system, because the brakes are not only personal safety, but also the safety of passengers, pedestrians and other drivers!
How to brake into ice: 3 harmful councils and one useful
Properly slow down - with a margin. The rest depends on the car and your driver skills.
Materials on the topic
If your car is equipped with ABS (and today it is quite difficult to find a car without this system), the electronics will perform the main work. The system is just created in order to ensure safe braking. The most efficient braking is on the verge of blocking the wheels. And this system is occupied by the fact that it quickly increases and reduces the pressure in the brake lines, the blurred and clamping pads. When she enters into work, you will understand the quickbearance of the pedal and the characteristic khrush. Your case is just keeping the steering wheel and harrow on the brake pedal. Moreover, come from the soul, as they say, becoming all weight. This is not required if the car is equipped with the BRAKE Assist system - electronics compensates for insufficient pressing on the pedal during emergency braking.
ABS allows not easy to brake in a straight line, but also maneuver. So if you have the opportunity to get away from the collision on the side of the road or in the next row, the car itself will help do it. The main thing is to make sure that you do not cause this maneuver more harm, and do not unscrew the steering wheel on too much angle so as not to lose control of the car. If there is a snow brusher along the road, the car can be directed into it, unless under the snow there are no metallic and concrete structures, and for bruster - ditches. Otherwise, the consequences of the accident are unpredictable.
Materials on the topic
Rather, outdated. In old driver's textbooks you can meet the Council Imitate the work of ABS rapidly press brake pedals . But, first, no one person is able to press-release a pedal with a frequency up to 20 times per second, and secondly, this skill must be constantly trained, otherwise there is only an emergency situation to harm, increasing the braking path.
Also meets advice On cars with a manual gearbox, brake first by the engine, sequentially switching "down" until the first transmission . But with emergency braking, such a reception is hardly applicable.
Use on slippery road handbrake (parking brake) It is impossible: the rear wheels are blocked, the car will slide, and with a small error in the roll, it will go sideways.
How do you still need to slow down?
The best advice is to slow down with a margin. Keep the distance and remember that the road is slippery. Determine how slippery, quite simple: you only need to "slow down" on an empty section of the road with different speeds and remember the sensations. Remember that in some cases (on an uneven road, for example), the same ABS may not reduce the braking path, but on the contrary - to increase it. Actually disable the system you will not be able. So carefully follow the situation on the road and do not rush.
P.S.: The fact that the car should be a good brake system and good tires (not worn, and for season), it goes without saying.
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How to slow down without ABS and how to brake with abs
How to slow down without abs
Braking is always a forced measure, designed to quickly reduce the speed to avoid driving or stopping the vehicle. In winter, the need for braking, including emergency and emergency, is increasing, since at this time of the year obstacles and interference on the road much more. Brake on a slippery road is very dangerous, because the car sharply moves from a smooth movement into an uncontrolled slip due to partial or complete blocking of the wheels.
With a sharp braking of the wheel are blocked and the driver loses control, which is fraught with a serious accident. By the way, if you add thrust sharply, then the wheels can break into slip, which will also lead to an accident.
The most common mistake of drivers is that when an obstacle suddenly appears, they hise on the brake pedal, forgetting that under the wheels are not dry asphalt, and risen snow or ice. As a result, the car begins to demolish in an unexpected direction, he no longer listens to the steering wheel and pedals, and the driver covers panic.
You can select two fundamentally different intake of safe braking in winter: braking by car with ABS and without it. Introducing the presence of ABS, you are vigorously pressing the pedal: the system will do everything in order to prevent the movement of the vehicle by the SM. Weak brake pressing can be regarded by the system incorrectly, and it will not turn on. How to slow down without abs - You have to use intermittent or step braking. More details we will talk about it later. And here, let's say that intermittent braking is performed by a series of short pulse shocks on brake pedal, which mimic the operation of the ABS. Step braking is the same, but with increasing effort. The main thing is to prevent the blocking of the wheels: to brake exactly until the moment they stop rotating, and immediately release the pedal. With the last brake pulse, which leads to a car stop, you need to turn off the clutch so as not to drown out the engine, and translate the gearbox to the neutral position.
How to slow down with abs
To evaluate how much the coverage is slippery and get the skill of how to slow down with abs , Spend a simple test. First, make sure that you do not follow vehicles, and there is enough free space ahead. Then several times, slightly disperse (approximately 20-30 km / h), sharply press the brake pedal. If your car is not equipped with an anti-lock system (ABS, it is AB8), and under the wheels it will be slippery, the car will go in use, practically not listening to the steering wheel and inactively slowing down. If the machine is equipped with ABS, then on slippery coating the brake pedal will crack and vibrate. This suggests that the wheels have a low clutch coefficient with a road surface. At the same low speed, you can dramatically turn the steering wheel aside and immediately return it to its original position. If the car followed the wheel, then the grip with an expensive confident, and if reacted with late or did not respond at all, then the ice on the road. Whatever happens, in any situation, our experts on visiting those relief on the roads of Moscow will come and provide the necessary assistance.
How to brake with abs
It happens that even a car with an operating ABS is not able to slowly slow down, although the driver hits the pedal much, and the system makes it necessary to know about its activities with characteristic skipping. It may be that the coating is too slippery, and the mass of the car is too big to quickly repay the high speed. In this case, before the start of the braking, it is worth shifting on a meter-one and a half to the side, get away from the ribbon. Perhaps there is snow or dirt there, which will benefit in this case and allow the wheels to cling to the road surface. From the next chapter, you can find out how to properly park the car in winter: how to choose a parking place, the position of the handbrake when parking and departure from the parking lot.
Intermittent or step-in braking when the braking force is unevenly distributed between the wheels, provokes the so-called digging, that is, the loss of the course stability by car. To avoid this, it is necessary to make short piring between the brake pulses in any case, not allowing the development of a whip of the back of the car in the opposite direction. When with experience, the driver tends to take into account the ABS signal - cracking when the brake pedal is pressed, and takes the right measures - it begins to understand well how to brake with abs . And in one of the following chapters, it will be possible to find out for what you need to own the techniques of contraloan driving.
How to brake with abs on mechanics
Try to use the working brake system less, especially on turns. More often, use braking engine - movement without fuel supply on one transmission. In this case, you completely eliminate the locking of the wheels and the loss of control, since even a short-term stop of the rotation of the wheels in the turn can turn out to be reversed or departing beyond the road linen.
This Council flows the following: Never slow down on snow or ice with clutch off. Such actions you deprive the wheels of the power supply with the engine, and itself - the ability to influence the slowdown and acceleration.
Moving in the city where the transport streams are rather dense, the brand is cautiously, paying attention to the situation behind you. Do not forget to look more often in the rearview mirrors. If your car wound into the studded tires, always remember that on the pure asphalt, the brake path increases by 1.2-1.5 times compared with the unwanted rubber.
Before traffic lights and pedestrian transitions, the coating is usually more slippery, since in such places it is polished by frequent braking of other cars. It also must be borne in mind, counting the brake path.
On the highway, observe the distance to the leader. Again, take into account the possible difference in the tires of your cars: if ahead of the traveling vehicle rides in the studded wheels, then on the ice, its braking path is shorter than yours if there are no thorns. It is advisable to even watch something further forward to see the third-fourth car from you and begin to gradually slow down when their stop signals light up.
As the proverb says, the military is always preparing for the past war. Exactly the same thing is the most authors of the "valuable" tips for managing the machine. Books have managed to be outrage, and edits in reprints are not able to reflect the entire essence of the changes that have occurred.
A couple of words about modern electronic assistants
Over the past ten years, there are almost no machines without ABS on the roads, and four-wheel drives on most machines became automatically connected with electronic control. ESP is increasingly increasingly included in the basic configuration, and the automatic transmission gradually displaces the "mechanics". Yes, and active steering systems slowly penetrate our life - one Infiniti Q50 without a mechanical connection between the steering wheel and wheels of what ...
Against the background of these changes, the advice seems to "squeeze the clutch and turn the steering wheel towards the drift" look even not an anachronism - they are simply not applicable in practice. As for the advice of the guru of sports driving, then again, they are true only for prepared machines, without smart electronics, with powerful motors and "right" steering.
Some tips of "experienced" have long lost their relevance and are close to becoming dangerous. The most mass option that appeared on the machines has become anti-lock brake system - ABS. The essence of its work is to prevent blocking the rotation of the wheels, and thereby decreases the braking path on solid coatings and the control of braking is preserved.
In Europe and the United States, the car without it is no longer produced in principle, we have nowhere for sale of cars without this system are permitted, but in fact almost all new cars are equipped with it. Many perceive her as an annoying interference and sincerely believe that without it they would stop before, but it would be more convenient to manage the car. But in reality, the machine with a disconnected ABS actually represents an uncontrollable car. Since the end of the 90s, ABS has assumed the function of the brake force distributor - systems that prevents blocking the wheels of the rear axle earlier than on the front, and thus saves the stability of the machine when braking. Without it, even an experienced driver risks when braking completely lose coursework stability and go sideways to a ditch. And the anti-lock blocking system takes care of the preservation of the stability of the machine when braking on inhomogeneous coatings, for example, when one wheel goes on the sidelines, and another on asphalt. The system simply dismisses the right and left wheels and the machine is eventually riding directly. Previously, this task was solved only by the adjustment of the suspension, but not too efficiently. This, of course, really manage to cope with braking without ABS better than with it. On bulk coatings, anti-lock systems and truth may be less effective than braking with blocked wheels or special deceleration techniques, but not always the driver can use this advantage and even leave the car on the desired trajectory.
In addition, electronics can adjust the braking force on each of the wheels individually, and I have not seen four-pedal machines. Unfortunately, there are examples of the really bad work of the systems. Everyone heard about the errors in the firmware of the ABS blocks on the cars of the Volkswagen concern, which revealed journalists "Autores" during the Tests of Volkswagen Tiguan and several more models VW and Skoda. The system is not in moderation diligently focused on the wheels on uneven coatings and when braking in turns, as a result of which the car slowed down much less efficiently than other cars with ABS. The manufacturers are far from all cases produced updated block firmware, and none of the models of cars responded to forced replacement. But some new systems recognize loose coatings and change the work algorithm to maximize the brake path reduction. You can tell about the advantages and cons of the system for a long time, but now the story of which management techniques with the advent of electronics in the brake drive changed.
Brake allowed, but carefully
One of the few tips, who remembers everything: "Do not brand in turns." On machines without ABS, the Council is quite faithful. Racing schools driving, in general, in this issue are agree with the initial learning instructors, but provide for training in special techniques of braking, which allow you to still reset the speed on the arc.
And almost all drivers act right and racing, trying to complete the braking to turn. That's just in a critical situation, when the speed is too large, an obstacle unexpectedly arises or something else, they also do not slow down, although if there is an ABS, it would be quite safe to use brakes, thereby preventing an accident or reduce the severity of the consequences. There is a margin for the clutch and can be braked, and rotated at the same time, and without the risk of complete loss of controllability. If you have a "fresh" machine with an ABS - brand, there will be nothing terrible. The car will reduce the speed, and the lower speed is the best grip, and more time on control exposure. And here the Council "In an emergency, it is easy to brake into the floor" gives already traffic rules, no "go round" there is not provided there. And most drivers honestly slows down, without trying to drive around the obstacle. There is still a little less unequivocal. When driving the brake path inevitably increases, at least a little. And due to errors in the work of the anti-lock system, which is already mentioned above, the braking path may increase almost twice.
And if the accident failed to avoid, a good traffic police inspector will be sure that if you just slow down without any focus, it would cost, and if we steered, it means to blame ... But if the chances of going around the obstacle is great, but the consequences of the collision May be hard anyway, it is better to try. But in order to choose a right decision, it is better to test your car in braking in advance when "rearranged" or search for tests on the network. And then suddenly in your car "not that" firmware that will not give you to slow down in principle ...
What to do with rhythmic drift?
Another dangerous situation is a rhythmic skid. Especially it is unpleasant on the front-wheel drive car. To stabilize the trajectory, when the rear wheels broke into the UZ, as we all know, you need to add thrust. But the bank is not always able to correct, and if you "twist" the steering wheel, be late with the correction, then then the drift and becomes rhythmic. The back is talking in one direction, then to another, the amplitude is growing ... The consequences of the car departure outside the route here will be harder here than if the driver just let everything on a samotek from the very beginning. It's important to keep the car handling and not to get into the oncombat truck. Unfortunately, contramitting preparation in most drivers is at a very low level, and their actions in such a situation resemble a well-known anecdote about Caruso, which Rabinovich nailed by phone.
It seems like you need to turn the steering wheel towards driving and add thrust, but the speed of taxiing and the relevance of the control actions is no. And, of course, almost everyone is confident that on the brakes you can not and the car will immediately go into uncontrolled rotation. In this dangerous situation it is worth remembering that the electronic assistants act better most drivers. Yes, a person cannot squeeze five tons to replace the seat belts, and press the four brake pedals for ten times per second to replace the ABS and ESP systems, - you just need to accept the mighty human intelligence (in its existence True, there is also doubts when you look at the rollers about an accident) clearly loses in the simplest motor skills of simple electronics and pyrotechnics. Without electronics when braking the wheels are blocked, and the car really will rotate, without reacting to the rotation of the steering wheel, but often it is also not the worst situation of the situation - the speed will be falling. But if there is an ABS, then the situation changes sharply on the opposite. Even if the angular speed of the car is large enough, then when the system is triggered, it will try to prevent the machine turn. All operational algorithms are "sharpened" under maintaining braking stability. And, of course, the car will reduce the speed, so that even if it cannot be kept on the road, then the consequences will be not so heavy.
And the controllability of the machine in such conditions is fully saved - the steering wheel can be used in the same way efficiently. Of course, the rear axle is unloaded, but the difference in the coupling weight of the front and rear axes is perfectly leveled by the control of the speed of rotation of the right and left front wheels. I do not call for the slightest signs of driving to stop the brake pedal - yet the work of the steering wheel and the driving is perfectly helped rightfully Yes, and experience will not be superfluous. But if the routine appears, it would be better forget about the advice of the instructor's grandfather and try to take advantage of the chance that technical progress gives. Please note: In any dubious situation, the ABS does not just need to miss the wheels, it is simply obliged to maintain the straight movement of the machine. It will be performed not only if the machine moves directly, but also will try to straighten the trajectory in the event of a drift, equalizing the speed of rotation of the wheels. And if the system has a steering position sensor, which is true for modern systems, then will try to help the steering control
What is the result?
We will make a short conclusion: on modern cars with abs braking in turn and in driving - you can. But only in the event that traditional ways out of emergency situations do not help.
There are only three dangerous scenarios (braking in turn, braking for a straight and rhythmic drift) and a significant discrepancy between a very careful theory and rich opportunities to correct the situation in practice. And in our article we considered only one, albeit the most important activity system - abs . On machines with ESP systems, all the assistance is available without clicking on the brake pedal, but in this case the system will only be able to ensure the stability of the machine on the selected trajectory, and not a slowdown, but the system intervention does not require any actions from the driver.
The farther, the more ways of sports driving schools without "assistants" and ways of management of modern cars will be dispersed. And only a complete understanding of the processes occurring from the machine, the work of its nodes and aggregates and practice will provide you with a really new level of security on the road. Read modern publications and do not rely on the opinion of old authorities in such responsible issues. And stay with us. And besides, take time and go to a large empty snow-covered platform to "understand" your car. No need instructors. Boldly accelerate on the snow, slow down to the floor, twist the steering wheel ... Do it all to understand the car at the level of reflexes. After all, it will not be time for reflections in an emergency situation.