Lebanon is a tiny state in the Middle East, bordering on the East with Syria and in the south with Israel. Lebanon has direct access to the Mediterranean Sea. The population for 2016 is more than 6 million locals and from different estimates from 1 to 2.5 million refugees from Syria. Refugees from Syria live predominantly in the capital of Lebanon - Beirut, and those border with Syria. Because of the numerous wars from Lebanon, millions of locals left, about 12 million Lebans left for approximate estimates around the world.
Lebanon is a country of contrasts, ranging from the contrast of the social status of people, the contrast of nature - the mountains with snow and the warm sea, ending with religious and political peculiarities. From most Arab countries, Lebanon has extremely strong religious diversity and religious tolerance within the country. In Lebanon, you can meet a mosque and a Catholic temple on one street. Both will be under the enhanced armed guard, since the bloody wars on religious grounds in the Arab world is not yet such a distant story. On the streets there are a lot of armed people - the police, the army, Hezbollah, and all this with one goal, maintain peace and calm in the country.
The first people settled on the territory of modern Lebanon about 6 thousand years ago. During its existence, Lebanon managed to be under the rule of the Turks, as part of the Ottoman Empire and even under the rule of France, as one of the Arab colonies. In total, Lebanon was occupied more than ten times - Assyrians, Egypt, Hitts, Babylon, Alexander the Great Army, the Byzantine Empire, Persia, the Roman Empire, Crusaders, Great Britain, France, Israel, Ottoman Empire and Syria. Reminders of each stage of the formation of modern Lebanon can be found not only in Beirut, but also throughout the country. Beirut almost completely destroyed 7 times, but then each time was rejected again. That is why Beirut called "Phoenix". The oldest city of Lebanon - Biblos, unequivocally deserves visits, because this is the oldest city not only in Lebanon, but also from all known on the planet. In this city, one of the most ancient fortresses of the world and stunning beaches have been preserved.
The oldest city of the world - Bible
The capital of the country - Beirut, also hides a lot of interesting places. However, after the war of 2006, many tourists began to bypass Lebanon by the party, undeservedly considering this country unsafe for visiting. Beirut keeps the prints of that war, although the city has already managed to rebuild, but some buildings were specially preserved in the form, as they stayed after bombing, to always remind about the horrors of war. Small security problems in Lebanon still remained.
In Lebanon, a lot of things get along, which does not get along in the usual world. The usual picture is the building, gray and scary bullets and fragments with bullets and fragments, quite recently almost from scratch renovated street, and next to classic French houses, too, erected literally a few years ago. Writing and remembering its story, every war and every destroyed building, the Lebanese remain a peaceful and very friendly oriental people.Current time in Beirut:
Despite the fact that today there are more than 100 different banks in Lebanon, and the Swiss banking secrecy system operates, but the banking system and cash relations did not have time to spoil people. You will be happy to see you for free, the usual tourist and stranger with pleasure and will help you free and tell the lot of stories. Lebanon is a very warm and welcome country, which deserves visits.
How to get
You can only get to Lebanon by air or water. The main air gates of the country are located in the capital. Beirut Airport named after Rafa Hariri is both civil and military, and at the same time is the only country airport available to civil aviation. This airport is the only regularly affordable way to be in the country.
In Lebanon, three large seaports: the port of Beirut, the port of Tripoli and the port of Tira, now they are less serviced by tourist cruise liners, although until 2006, regular flights from Lebanon to Cyprus were carried out and Turkey. As of 2015, tourist liners come to the port of Lebanon only within the Mediterranean tour, buy tickets separately on the ship from being taken to Cyprus, so far it is impossible. But you can rent a boat or even a yacht to make a private journey. Rates for such an adventure, as in Europe, from $ 70 in 2 hours a trip to the boat, to the fabulous sums per yachts.
Ground communication with Lebanon in 2015 is unsafe, since it is necessary to go through the territory of Syria. It is impossible to enter the Lebanon from the territory of Israel, as countries are in a state of war. Nevertheless, if you do not even intimidate Syria, then from there you will be missed in several checkpoints. The most popular entries, this is Masnaa's Edge Point, on the Damascus-Beirut Road, and a frontier point 15 kilometers from Homsa, on the Homs-Tripoli road. All throughput points as of May 2015 are confidently controlled by Lebanese and Syrian military. Lebanon is separated from Syria with an extended mountain massif, which imposed restrictions on the number of possible entives, in addition to these two, there are only a few more places, but with their safety problems are observed due to the attempts of IHIL to penetrate the territory of Lebanon. Railway in Lebanon is absent.
If you have a seal in your passport about visiting Israel, then enter the Lebanon will not work. If you have already managed to change your passport, then on the border control will have to forget that you were in Israel, as this question is asked to almost all tourists. If you were really not in Israel, then there will be no problems. But after visiting Lebanon, before you change the passport, you will not be able to visit Israel. Or while the situation regarding these two countries will not change for the better.
Search air ticket and Lebanon
Search for car holing
Climate and weather in Lebanon
The territory of Lebanon is predominantly mountain. Despite the warm Mediterranean climate, in the mountains of Lebanon lies the snow most of the year, which attracts lovers of skiing from the entire Middle East. In April, when the sea is already warm enough, in Lebanon you can go skiing in one day, and descending lower, swim in the warm sea.
The coldest month in Lebanon is January. The average January air temperature is about 13 degrees of heat in the coastal zone, in the mountains, a stable minus and snow. Snow in the mountains of Lebanon usually lies from the end of autumn until the end of April. The hottest month in Lebanon is August, the air in the coastal zone is often heated up to + 35-40 degrees, although the average temperature holds at about 28 degrees. The air is very wet.
In traditional housing, there are no classic batteries and heating systems, since below 10 degrees, the temperature in the coastal zone is rarely lowered. If this happens, no more than a few days continues. Air conditioners, on the contrary, have all, not even very wealthy Lebans and in all modern hotels. Already in April, warm weather is installed on the coast, the thermometer column comes to 25 degrees during the day, and rarely falls below 15 degrees at night. Such weather is typical for autumn, until the end of October. Rainy season in Lebanon is expressed Neyarko. The maximum amount of precipitation falls from November to March. If you are going to visit Lebanon during these months, the umbrella is required.
What to see
A visit to Lebanon is to highlight at least 10 days if you want to have time to see at least the most important places and sights of Lebanon. You can move through the territory of Lebanon absolutely calmly or by an independent tourist or as part of the group. Organized tours are not found in Russian, but in travel agencies you can get closer to English-speaking groups. You can go somewhere in Lebanon yourself on a taxi, minibus or leased machine. In some places buses do not go, but to be an economical tourist, you can get to the nearest major city on a minibus, and already from there taxi.
Main sights Livana
Where to go to Lebanon
1 tourist was here
Divine cedar forest, he is also Horsh-Arz-Er-slave, is the largest cedar grove in Lebanon. Located...
1 tourist was here
Mosque Muhammad al-Amina, also called Hariri Mosque, is Muslim and Sunni. Located in ...
1 tourist was here
If you want to be in large caves and you are not afraid to freeze even in the summer, then you must ...
1 tourist was here
On the way to the Lebanese Kedram in the Divine Cedar Forest, you can stay 30 kilometers from Tripoli, ...
Even if you did not plan to swim in Juni, which is 16 kilometers from Beirut, then this ...
1 tourist was here
If you believe legend, then in Lebanon is the oldest city on earth, which throughout history ...
All Attractions Livana
Interesting places in Lebanon
Private guides in Lebanon
More detailed with Lebanon will help you to familiarize yourself with Russian private guides. On the project, experts. Toursister.ru registered 1 Russian guide in Lebanon.
Things to do
The coastal zone of Lebanon boasts more than 300 sunny days a year. Total in Lebanon about 200 kilometers of sandy beaches. Paradise for lovers to swim and sunbathe. The problem is one - the beach recreation infrastructure is not developed everywhere. Only on some beaches there are service, rescuers and some objects of entertainment, the rest of the beaches are still wild. In summer, on some beaches of Beirut, they offer traditional entertainment for seafood - scooters, water serpents, treats.
Wild Beach in Lebanon © Andrey Novoselov
There are beaches both in Beirut itself, even in the city center and beyond. The Lebanese themselves prefer to go to Junia's beaches - just 16 kilometers from Beirut. Junia is the bay, the city of the same name is also located. In Junia, a huge number of hotels, there is both direct access to the sea and 10-15 minutes. All habitual water entertainment and rescue service in the holiday season, all this is there too. In Junia, the sea is most often calm, even if the waves flew outside the bay. Biblos beaches are very popular - about 40 minutes drive from the capital. There is also a full range of beach services.
As for swimwear for women. That open clothing and separate swimsuits can not be afraid of neither in Beirut, nor in Juni, nor in Biblos. Local calmly relate to frank swimsuits, especially in foreign tourists, and even the Lebanese themselves are often bathed in separate swimsuits. But not in all cities so. In the south of the country, especially in small settlements, difficulties may arise.
Ski resorts Lebanon
From the end of autumn, at the end of April, in some cases, and at the end of May, in Lebanon, you can ride the mountains. In total in Lebanon, 6 ski resorts, the highest of which is the Cedars ski resort. The height difference in this place is about 1000 meters, from 2 to 3 thousand meters of height. Well-developed infrastructure - hotels, five lifts, rental points. Everything is absolutely new, as the resort rebuilt almost re-in 2005-2007. The total length of the descents is 120 kilometers. Descents are available for both newcomers and professionals, the most difficult descent got a black level. From Beirut, the road will take a little more than two hours by car.
Another popular place is Mzaar, much more modest, only about 80 kilometers of descents, but here are 18 lifts and 42 different descent. This place is chosen by those who want for one visit to the mountains, descend as much as possible with a larger number of slopes. In addition, from the Cedars resort, this place is favorably distinguished by the location, from Beiruta can be reached in an hour. There are also descents with a black degree of complexity.
Despite the small popularity of Lebanon as a ski resort among tourists from Russia, in the Arab world, Lebanon is very popular. For most neighboring countries, Mount Lebanon, this is the only one close place where the snow is so long. Therefore, do not be surprised at how many times the ski resorts of Lebanon sometimes are sometimes there. If you want to pre-buy or buy an integrated tour, then more information you can learn from local by email: [email protected]
Movement around the country
There is no railway in Lebanon. So do not try to find the railway station in Beirut or other city. But a well-developed automotive network of roads. There are no roads, but regular buses are absent, both within cities and between cities. There are no bus stations in most cities. Nevertheless, you can get from one city to another not only by taxi, but also on a minibus. In the capital there are points of accumulation of these buses, from where they drive around throughout the country. You can not call such points to the bus station, as such places are more like a spontaneous parking under highways, but if you come there, you can find the bus to the right direction. The main point of the collection of buses in Beirut is located near the Mohammed Al-Amin Mosque, under the junction of the Hello Helou (Charles Helou), almost opposite the port of Beirut.
Bus in Lebanon © Andrey Novoselov
On some minibuses it will be written where they go, but on the majority there will be no inscriptions at all. In addition, except as requested inside the bus, where he rides, it is impossible to know his route. Leave from the capital, with all the difficulty, it is still a very simple task. If you want to return to Beirut from another city, then try to ask the local one, whether they suddenly have places in the city where buses leave. There are such places in the final points, for example in Tripoli or dash, where many buses complete their route and return to the capital. In the small cities, in most cases you have to go on the track, or get to the taxi to it. There you will catch passing by buses, raising your hand. Boldly brake everything in a row, say where you need and if the bus is not going there, then wait the next one. This is common practice.
While you will go, your minibus will in this way will slow down other people many times, every time asking where he goes, while, very rarely sit down. For travel, as a rule, pay at exit. They pay the driver, no conductors, even in large minibuses (for 25-30 people). There are no clear price tags either, but ordinary prices, by the standards of 2015 - $ 2 for 30 kilometers. 2.5 dollars are enough to drive from Beirut to Biblos (about 35 kilometers). Ideally, if before the start of the trip, you will discuss the price with the driver, but in case of simplicity on the track, it is almost unrealistic. Of course, there are no tickets in these buses, as there are no seat belts. Be prepared that on two neighboring chairs, you will sit threesome when there are no free places for those who want. Lebanese are stuffed in buses as in the funniest jokes, and there are no standing places.
If possible, never use very small buses (9 seats), the Lebanese themselves joke about them, that the trip to them is an attraction with a 50% chance to die. Drivers such babies are very strongly straightened, rushed along the road, and terrible accidents happen to them very often. Wine in the whole hurry, since the cost of travel in a small bus is the same as in 25-30 local, and drivers to earn, try to make as much flights as possible per day. Little and large minibuses go around the clock, but at night they are very smaller. Large buses in Lebanon operate only with organized groups of tourists, only minibuses of different sizes ride along the routes.
To move inside the cities and between them are used taxis. There are personal taxis, and so-called "Services" (Service Taxi), which are 3-4 times cheaper than a regular taxi. "Services" - When the driver adds to the next way and delivers other people. Not only Lebanese, but in general arabic feature that in a 5-way car, the taxi driver is not a 4-EX of passengers, but 6: two on the front passenger seat and 4 people in the back. If you wish more comfort, you can pay two places in a taxi. The usual taxi goes an average of $ 0.5 per kilometer, "Services" cost $ 0.15 per kilometer in one place.
Taxi in Beirut
Counters are found very rarely, all prices are negotiated out loud. The Gold Rule is to specify the price before the start of the trip. Even better, before you got inside. So you will be more advocated and quick to agree to a low price. A completely different rates, if you are traveling between cities, the same route Beirut Biblos, which is about $ 2.5 on a minibus, will cost about $ 25 by taxi, although it is only 35 kilometers.
The cost of a taxi does not change from the city. Therefore, approximately the same routes in the capital and in any small town will cost approximately the same. As usual in Lebanon, you can pay both in local Lebanese pounds and dollars. You can catch a taxi just on the street by raising your hand on the side of the sidelines. Taxi in Lebanon is a huge amount, you can go day and night.
A large taxi network - Allo Taxi works throughout Lebanon, offers a taxi order at 1213 or through its ALLO TAXI app, affordable and on Google Play and on the App Store. They can also be ordered a taxi in advance, for example from the airport to the hotel. The standard fixed price of the transfer of Allo Taxi from the airport to any hotel in the center of Beirut - $ 13 and 4 people.
Rent a car in Lebanon can be just as, for example in Paris. The Lebanese Traffic Police recognizes international rights, and in the country there are international companies City Car, Sixt, Europcar and Budget. None of these companies make it possible to take or return the car outside the capital, however, renting a car, you can easily leave Beirut limits. The cost of renting a car in Lebanon depends on its class. It begins with $ 25 per day for a compact hatchback, and can reach several hundred dollars for a representative car or an SUV. If the terms of insurance will allow you to take a car without compulsory participation, we recommend doing it for any money. In Lebanon, chaotic road traffic, the risk of getting into a small accident is very high. The Lebanese themselves do not pay attention to small dents, but you have, when you return, there may be problems. Road rules and road signs in Lebanon meet European, but there are often no signs, as well as traffic control.
There are no inside airports in Lebanon, they are simply not needed, due to the size of the country itself. The main airport, he is the only civilian - located in the capital, in Beirut.
Official language Two: Arabic and French. In Lebanon, French knows everything. If you meet in Lebanon of the "local resident", which does not speak French in general, then with a high probability, you have a Syrian refugee. English is quite common, 43% of the country's population speaks Arabic, French and English at the same time. With the knowledge of English, of course, you will not disappear, but among the elderly Lebans are better not looking for interlocutors, and youth opposite, it is very well owning English. Lebanon is considered a country where one of the highest levels of the education of the population, among all Arab countries. Most tablets and inscriptions in Lebanon are duplicated in French and Arabic.
Lebanese cuisine is rich in vegetables and fish. Meat is rare, more often chicken, or sea fish. Street food is common everywhere. In Lebanon, they make their own shawarma that is very different from Turkish. Even if you are not a fan of a roadside meal, be sure to try. Lebanese Shawarma is famous for its sauces that make using various spices and olive oil. In Lebanese Shawarma sounds like "Shaverm", so you will quickly understand. One shawarma is on average 2 dollars, but it is such a size that even an adult man can intact.
Gourmet restaurants can be found not only in the capital, but it is here that more than 400 restaurants on any wallet are located. In Beirut, there are a lot of pathos, where not only Lebanese cuisine is served, but also international. In the rest of the cities, public catering points are much easier, but also prices are much more modest.
Although not all residents of Lebanon Muslims, but there are no pork in the diet at all. Chicken, fish, maximum lamb. Very many vegetables. Vegetables and extinguish, and boil, and fry, and hook and what they just do not do. A lot of bean dishes. All this with soul is seasoned with spices, and it turns out to be easiest, but with the Lebanese soul. Lost in the usual institution in Beirut will cost a person about $ 10.
Lebanese beer exists, but even the Lebanese does not drink him, preferring to him Czech. You can not even find Lebanese Beer in every place, but Pilsner and some other imported beer varieties are everywhere. Lebanese is normally relate to alcohol, including in the middle of the working day, so you can order without any problems.
Lebanese wine, in contrast to beer - the subject of pride of all Lebanese, Drinking and Nepi. Lebanese believe that it is from them to make the best wine in the Middle East, and in something they are right. The most famous Lebanese wine is Château Ksara. It happens both red and white, and even pink. Some Lebanese recognize the wine only red, the rest is asked not to call this word. Château Ksara and other Lebanese wines are usually widely represented in any restaurant, not even wine. You can also buy them in the supermarket. You can even take the wine to your homeland, the main thing is not to violate the rule by the number of alcohol, which is allowed to import into that country where you are flying, since in Lebanon there are no hard rules for the removal of wine for personal purposes.
As in any Arab country, in Lebanon will never be offended by you for being traded. This is local in the blood. So bargain while you have arguments, and when they are run out - try to leave, it's some times the best argument that reduces the price twice. Of course, it does not apply to supermarkets, boutiques and ordinary stores in shopping centers. And street shops, souvenir stalls, taxis, buses, and just services - all this is amenable to discussion and decline in price. Lebanese love to bargain, try and you.
To buy souvenirs in Lebanon is not such a simple task, as it could seem. Because of a small flow of tourists, who needs magnets, purely souvenir shops in the city are not at all. If you want to find Magnets with Lebanon, Mugs, Stands and other tourist baubles in Beirut, then look at the Virgin Megastroe shop, which is located in the Sausk shopping center in the center of Beirut. A small number of generals of thematic Lebanese souvenirs are sold in benches in museums. On a trip to historical places, you can purchase fossils as souvenirs. They are sold at quite democratic prices - from 5 dollars per little pebbles. Lebanese customs quietly relates to the export of such trinkets.
Souvenirs from the Lebanese cedar at the same time and a lot and few sell them in a modest assortment. And what is, according to the assurances of sellers, makes exclusively from broken and dead branches. Cedar is considered to be a sacred tree in Lebanon, so it is a special honor and respect. Breaking a branch of cedar - a crime. Tourists are even forbidden to carry the seeds of this tree with them.
Supermarkets in Lebanon are, but there are very few of them. The largest network of supermarkets in the East - Spinneys, has a number of shops and in Lebanon. However, the range in small grocery stores is sometimes even better than in this network, in which there are a lot of European imported goods, with appropriate high prices. And specific products, such as paper, or fish, can be bought in specialized little shops. Where, do not forget to bargain a little. It is striking that in Lebanon is very expensive dairy products, but very cheap fruits. Water in Lebanon from under the tap can not be drunk, so when visiting the store do not forget to buy a bottle of water, prices for it as in Russia.
Shops work, as a rule, from 9 to 18 hours. Supermarkets work up to 10 pm. Lunch break so that the institution closes completely - it is very rare, but the number of employees decreases. There are in Lebanon and 24-hour shops, this is usually small grocery stores in the lively areas of the city. On Saturday and Sunday, most shops are closed, only central shops, small food shops, and restaurants remain working. A large Sauques shopping center in the Beirut Center works including on weekends.
100 Lebanese pounds
In Lebanon, they are tolerant in Lebanon, they are not twisted from tourists, but will be grateful. And certainly, no one will be offended. Automatically include tips in the account - this is not practiced in Lebanon at all, so, to encourage employees of a restaurant, a hotel or your taxi driver, it's just at your discretion. Leave money on the table is not accepted, tips give personally in the hands of the one who served you.
Although Lebanon has its own currency - the Lebanese pound, but the American dollar is so in the go that it is taken absolutely everywhere. Even in government agencies. But, if you wish, you can change dollars to Lebanese pounds. The course is fixed and everywhere one and the same - 1 dollar is equal to 1500 Lebanese pounds. Money is changing in banks, and there are no small "Arab" exchangers in Lebanon. When exchanging money in the bank, a passport is always required, even if we are talking about $ 20.
What currency to take to Lebanon? The question with a unambiguous answer is only dollars. Rubles in Lebanon change unreal. You can drive money on the card, in Lebanon an extensive network of ATMs. ATMs are not only in the capital, but also in small cities, and local people actively use bank cards themselves. Russian Visa and MasterCard are served in any ATMs of Lebanon. Cash issuance is offered to choose from - in Lebanese pounds or dollars.
Pay the map - Visa MasterCard, you can only in large stores and supermarkets. In most places you will need cash. It is not necessary to change your dollars to Lebanese pounds. As of 2015, in the course and local currency and American dollars. Sometimes you pay the goods in the store in the Lebanese pounds, and give you out in dollars and vice versa. Take dollars absolutely everywhere, starting with Taxisov, small shops, ending with cellular operators, boutiques and even street vendors take dollars without problems. All at a fixed rate is $ 1 = 1500 Lebanese pounds.
You can buy a SIM card in Lebanon can anyone. Sims are sold both in the offices of cellular operators - Alfa and Touch and in electronics stores and even in some foods. Sims are sold both with a contract, and without. The tourist will suit the prepaid symart without a contract. When buying SIM cards necessarily draw up documents, for this, your passport is requested. In Lebanese documents, they are universally asked to indicate data on parents, so do not embarrass when you, an adult, in the contract will be asked to write the name and surname of your parents. It is impossible to buy a sim card in Lebanon without a passport.
The cheapest SIM card costs $ 25, this money will immediately be on the balance sheet. There is no big difference in operators if you plan to simply go online and communicate with the house. The call to Russia costs about 0.4 dollars per minute, one message is about 10 cents. You can take a set of services to a prepaid sim card for a month. Its price depends on the available megabytes, for example, 300 MB per month will cost only 10 dollars. We recommend to get a symbol with the Internet, so you can in any corner of Lebanon to be on the cards in the phone.
There are no problems with cellular signal, the coating is almost one hundred percent, only rising into the mountains, the signal is sometimes lost. With Lebanese SIMs, it is impossible to call to Israel, the rest of the restrictions are not. Leaning Lebanon, some special way to disable SIM card is not required. After you stop using SIM, it will automatically turn off, but you will not return the money to you.
Wi-Fi in Lebanon is in most cafes and restaurants, but most often he is under password. At the airport free Internet, without limiting time to use. If you need to urgently connect to the Internet in the center of the capital, then go to Beirut Sauaks, free Wi-Fiwife is working on all its territory.
Emergency telephone numbers in Lebanon
- In Lebanon, there is a single number 112, but it does not cause a common call center, but only the police.
- Ambulance in Lebanon: 140.
- Rescue service: 125.
- Fire service telephone in Lebanon: 175.
- Citizens of Russia can contact the Russian embassy in Beirut by phone + 961-130-00-41 and + 961-130-00-42.
- Citizens of Ukraine can contact the Ukrainian embassy in Beirut by the phone numbers of the hotline + 961-592-19-75 and + 961-592-16-68.
Modern Lebanon is a country that has just recently departed from a serious war. But the war is not finished yet. In the south of the country, the Hezbollah and Israeli conflict is still located and the shots are heard. For the entire length of the border of Lebanon and Syria, an unstable situation is observed in relation to ISIL. However, the mountain range, which falls on most of the territory of the border of Lebanon and Syria, is the natural protection of Lebanon from unauthorized penetration of the enemy. Lebanon's army is good equipped, partly due to the help of French and American colleagues, so that numerous attempts of participants of ISHIL with weapons break into the territory of Lebanon are hampered. Such attempts were committed, including in 2015.
The conditionally safe zone of Lebanon, the fact that there is no threat from the southern conflict with Israel, nor from border problems with ISIL, is the central part of the country. Just there is the capital. Local advise to complete their journey through Lebanon, if you are traveling south, on a dash, and if north, then on Tripoli. Although, within the framework of Lebanon, it is possible to move further, but further these cities are distinguished by increased danger. According to the Lebanese Media, there are participants in ISIL on the territory of Lebanon, but they are not numerous, and do not have proper weapons.
The internal security of the country is supported by the forces of the regular army, the police and participants of Hezbollah. Although many this name is associated with a terrorist organization, but in Lebanon itself, this organization is recognized as a paramilitary political party. Russia, like a number of other countries, also recognize its political party, for which the Russians are particularly loved and welcome in Lebanon. The United States, the United Kingdom, most of Europe, Australia and a number of other countries, do not recognize the Hezbollah political party.
On the streets of Beirut a lot of armed people. Who is armed with modern American rifles - a regular army, who is armed with the Soviet machines Kalashnikov - Hezbollah, and who patrols the streets without visible weapons, but in form - the police. A feeling of tense security is created. On the street, especially in the center of the capital, very often asked to stop and show the contents of the backpack. Frections of checking machines on the roads, and in some quarters without inspection, not to get at all. In general, with all the tense atmosphere, in Beirut safely. It is worth understanding that all these actions and an abundance of weapons are just aimed at security.
It is not worthwhile to be afraid of something grand, like explosions or abductions, but banal streets. Millions of refugees from Syria live in Lebanon, whose position is far from comfortable. Although among refugees there are many educated people, they still can not find a job, which often brings people to theft. Therefore, comply with the elementary rules of personal safety and security of your property, walking around the city.
General safety can be compared with safety in Europe, but the risk of being braked, especially in distant areas, above average. Get ready to show worschousers of the contents of your portfolio, and even better, just go without it, so that you are not stopped once per hour. Separate attention to the safety of the road transition. There are few traffic lights in Lebanon, but even where they are - drivers despite the red light, go. Stripes are not always observed. Therefore, moving the road, always look in all directions, and do not go around the city in the headphones. At a minimum, because the Lebanese love to suppress on Claxson to join the car or motorcycle where it is impossible to ride.
Where to stay
You can stay in Lebanon in one of numerous hotels. Tourists in Lebanon are still a bit, so even in the summer, in the "tourist season", a lot of places. Problems can be seized only in the hotel in the mountains. There in the ski season is very high demand, however, as prices.
Hotels in Lebanon are classified just as around the world - that is, stars. There are both very cheap hostels - Hostel Beirut or Talal Hotel, and very expensive 5-sizetic hotels - Saifi Suites or Raouche Arjaan. Book a hotel in Lebanon and you can pay in advance, at home, paying the card via the Internet. Do not forget that booking the hotel on Booking.com at the above links, you participate in Raffle valuable prizes!
If you want to integrate better on Wednesday, you can rent a room from local or remove whole apartments. Lebanese hospitality, of course, does not know the borders, but it comes to the cost of the room in Beirut, it is high enough, due to very high demand from refugees from Syria. One room in the center of Beirut will cost about 30 dollars a day.
LEBANON (Arab. - Lubnan), Lebanese republic (al-Jumhuria al-Lubnania).
L. - state in the west of Asia, in the Middle East. It borders in the north and east with Syria, in the south - with Israel. In the West is washed with Mediterranean m. (The length of the coastline is 225 km). Pl. 10.4 thousand km 2(including internal water - approx. 200 km 2). Us. OK. 4.7 million people (Dr. data, St. 4.0 million people., 2009). Capital - Beirut. Officer Language - Arabic (in cases established by law, as an official. Language can be used by French). Monetary unit - Lebanese pound. Adm. Terr. Delivery: 8 Mukhafase (governors), including metropolitan (Table).
L. - Member of the UN (1945), Lag (1945), IMF (1947), MBRD (1947), Organization of the Islamic Conference (1969), has the status of an observer in the WTO.
L. - Unitary state-in. The constitution adopted 23.5.1926. The form of the Board is the parliamentary (actually semippeted) Republic.
The head of the State - President elected by the Parliament for 6 years (without the right to re-election for the second term in a row). The President is the Supreme Commander.
Supreme authority laws. The authorities are a unopalaptional parliament (Chamber of Deputies). It consists of 128 deputies elected on the basis of universal election. Rights for 4 years. Among the deputies, an equal representation of Christians and Muslims is ensured, a proportional representation of confessional communities belonging to each of these religs. Groups proportional to regions.
Execute. Power is carried out by the president and the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister is appointed by the president. The ministers are appointed by Prime Minister. The government should get a vote of the Parliament confidence.
Administrative and territorial division (2009)
|Mukhafase||Square, KM. 2||Population, million people.||Administrative center|
|Mountain Lebanon (Jebel-Lubnan)||1968.3.||1,8.||Baabda|
|Northern Lebanon (Ash Shamal)||1248.8.||0,6||Tripoli.|
|South Lebanon (El Janub)||929.6||0,6||Side|
Feature state. Building Lebanon is the use of a confessional principle, according to which when appointments to the highest state. Posts are respected by a balance between representatives of the Split. Relig. communities. In accordance with Nats. Covenant 1943 post of president must occupy a Christian Maronite, the Prime Minister - Muslim Sunnit, before. Parliament - Muslim-Shiite. Charter Nats. The consent of 1989 proclaimed the task of liquidation of political. confessionalism.
In L. There is a multi-party system. Politics. Party and movement L. form three blocks (2009). The first combines the Sunni Motion "Mustacbal", the Friend Progressive Socialist. The party, the Lebanese Force org. Members of Christian army. The formations, the Maronite Party "Katiaib", the Splitting Party "Cornet Shagan". The second includes Christian free patriotic. Movement, Christian party "Marat" and Communist. Party L. Third Block is represented by the Shiite org organizations "Amal" and "Hezbollah".
Shores will be performed. Low, little cut by bays, with dep. Rocky capes and arrays of sand dunes. The surface of L. in Osn. Highland. Coastal Plain (1.5-3 km width, in the south to 10 km) in the East goes to the foothills of the fold-bumpy ridge Lebanon , dissected by discharges (high. up to 3088 m, the mountain Kurka-Es Sauda is the highest point L.). Western, deeply dismembered slope of the ridge Lebanon steps drops to the Mediterranean m., Eastern - Cool breaks down to the Intergranta Valley of Becaa, which is robbed with a width of 8-14 km, which is stretched from north to south through the whole country. The bottom of the valley is located on the high. 750-900 m. In the east of L. - Zap. The slopes of the Range Anti-Livan (high. up to 2814 m, Mount Ash Sheikh, Hermon Array).
Geological structure and minerals
Bekaa Valley, in the background - Range Antilivan. Photo by A. I. Nagaeva
Territory L. is located on Naz.-Zap. Outskirts of the Precambrian Arabian Platform, in the field of spreading a platform cover, complicated by Jurassic, chalk and paleogenic shallow-water carbonate and terrific deposits (limestone, mergels, chalk, sandstones, etc.) with horizons of silicon and phosphorites, as well as basalts. In the Primorskaya Plain, neogene-quaternary river, coastal-maritime, eoliac deposits (sands, sandstones, aleurrites, clays, gravel, limestone) are locked. In the extreme Southeast L. - the cover of non -ogen-quaternary platabases. In the late Cenozoic territory experienced raising; There was a regional seismic fear (so on. Levantinsky shift), along which the rift valley of the Bekaa was formed, filled with neogene-quaternary lake and alluvial sediments. There are deposits of cement and builds. limestone, rock salt and gypsum, sands, gravel, etc.
On the territory of L. Climate subtropical Mediterranean, with dry summer and wet winter. On the coast of cf. Temp-RA January 13 ° C, July 27 ° C, on high. OK. 1000 m, respectively, 6 ° C and 22 ° C. The annual rainfall on the coast is 750-1000 mm (they will fall out. From October to April in the form of a shower), the summer is characterized by high relative humidity. In the mountains falls sv. 1000 mm (from December to May on the tops there is snow), in the Bekaa Valley and Zap. The slope of the antilivan ridge is 400-800 mm per year. In the summer, especially at the foot of the mountains, the precipitation is extremely scarce. In the spring blows hot southern. Wind Hamsin, bringing dusty storms.
The rivers are small, in the summer often dry, their waters are widely used for irrigation. The most significant r. El Litani drains southern. Part of the Bekaa Valley. MN. The streams and rivers flowing into the Mediterranean m., originate in the sources on the limestone slopes of the Lebanon Ridge.
Annually renewable water resources make up 4 km 3. Water availability is low: for each resident of the country accounts for 1219 m 3Waters per year. Annual water intake 1.3 km 3(Of these, 68% goes to needs with. X-VA, 6% consume industrial enterprises, 27% is spent on utility water supply). Access to clean drinking water has 100% urban and 87% of rural residents.
Soil, vegetable and animal world
In coastal areas and in the lower parts of the mountain slopes, brown soils predominate, at higher levels - gray-brown stony. As part of the flora approx. 3 thousand species of higher plants. Indigenous forest vegetation was represented by severe Mediterranean forests (on zap. The slopes of the Ridge Lebanon), significantly affected by the beginning. 20 V. Sovr. Substitution is 3%. In rod. Pokrov - Preim. Secondary shrubs (McWis, Frigan) with forest residues (oak fluffy, Platan, Clane, Alepskaya and Italian pines). On high 1200-1400 m are preserved small groves of the Lebanese cedar and Kilija fir. Tree juniper grow above, forming the top border of the forest on the high. 2400 m. At the Vost. The slope of the Ridge Lebanon and the Bekaa Valley is a dry steppe in conjunction with oak-pistachio gentlemen and Frigana. Cultural vegetation is dominated on the plains: winter crops of wheat and barley, planting of citrus, olives, vineyards. The slopes of the mountains are terrified to super. 1500 m, the terraces grow grain crops and fruit trees. As part of the fauna - 57 species of mammals (including 5 species under threat of disappearance), 116 species of nesting birds (7 types of threat of disappearance), 44 types of reptiles. Significant biological. Coastal resources.
For the period 1990-2000, the deforestation rates accounted for 3%. Forest cutting and grazing of small cattle led to the activation of soil erosion. In Beirut and other cities there are increased pollution of the War. Environments with exhaust gases and waste combustion products. Coastal waters are contaminated as a result of wastewater discharge and oil leaks in port cities.
In L., 24 protected natural territories have been created, occupying 0.7%. Countries, among them - 4 wetlands of international location. values (including swamps in the area of the village of Ammik in the Valley of Beka Pl. 1500 km 2), Biosphere reserve Shuf with cedar forest, nat. Mashgar Park.
Most of the population are Arabs (87.8%), including. Lebanese - 78.7% (of which dubs are 7.1%), Palestinians - 13%, Egyptians, Syrians, Iraqis. Among others: Armenians (5.9%), sowing. Kurds (5.4%), Assyrians.
The last census was carried out in 1932; It is estimated that 1960s. The population of L. has grown more than 2 times (approx. 2.2 million people. in 1961; 4.6 million people in 2009). Birth rate (17.1 per 1000 live.) Almost 3 times the mortality rate (6.0 per 1000 live.). Fertility rate of 1.9 baby on 1 woman; Infant mortality 21.8 per 1000 liveborn. The average age of 29.3 years. In the age structure of the population, the share of children (up to 15 years) is approx. 26%, persons working age (15-64) - approx. 67%, 65 years old and older - sv. 7%. Cf. The life expectancy of 73.7 years (men - 71.1, women - 76,3). 100 women account for 95 men.
According to estimates in the beginning. 21 c. In L. live too. 1.6 million foreign. citizens, including 1 million immigrants from Syria, St. 400 thousand Palestinian refugees and their descendants (about half live in refugee camps, the largest - Ain El Hilva, Rashidia - are located in the south of the country), approx. 180 thousand workers from others. Arab. countries, as well as from the south. and south-east. Asia. St. 15 million. Lebanese live abroad (ch. Arr. In France and the USA).
Cf. Population density is high - approx. 450 people / km 2(2009), most tight for Selena coastal part and Bekaa Valley. The cities live OK. 90% of the population. The largest city is Beirut (approx. 500 thousand people; with suburbs 2025.1 thousand people, 2009; St. 40% of us. Countries). Dr. Large cities (thousand people): Tripoli 192.6, Juni 100.5, Baalbek 82.6.
In the economy L. is occupied by St. 2 million people (approx. 1.5 million - Lebanon. Citizens and St. 1 million - Forers. Workers; 2007), from them in the service sector - 65%, in prom. - 20%, in p. x-ve - 15%. The unemployment rate of St. 9% (2007).
The confessional composition of the population is complex, its estimates are approximate. According to MIN-VA internal. L. Affairs, in 1996 52% of the Lebans professed Islam, 44.8% - Christianity; According to estimates of the Parliamentary Commission, in 2004, respectively, 60% and 40%. More than half of Christians - Maronites , the rest are Orthodox, Grekokatoliki, ArmenianGrigorian. There are small communities of syrophic, cynatolics, Armenianokatolikov, Presbyterian, and others. Protestant flows, Catholics of the Chaldean rite and Copts. The Maronite Church is headed by Patriarch with a residence in Bkirki (50 km from Beirut). Orthodox included in jurisdiction Antioch Orthodox Church . St. 50% Muslims - Shiite Imamites . Sunnis are 33-35% of us., Druze - OK. 10%, nosayriti (Alawita) - approx. 3%. There is a few. Judas community.
Used Grigorian and Musulm. Calendars.
Interreligious relations in L. are aggravated. In appointments to the highest state. Posts are respected by a balance between representatives of the Split. Relig. communities (see the State Structure section).
Lebanon from ancient times before independence. According to archaeologica. According to the first parking of tribes of fishermen in the territory of Sovr. L. (neighborhood of Gubail) appeared in 8-7th thousand to n. e. The emergence of the first settlements of a permanent type refers to the 5th thousand to n. e. In 4-3 thousand to n. e. The Lebanese coast was settled by the Khanani tribes. During this period, in L. emerged several. Phoenician cities - states: Bibl (now jubail), Tir (now Sur), Sidon (now Side), Berit (now Beirut) and others. In coastal areas, agriculture have been developed (growing olives, grapes, grain crops), pottery craft, weaving, production of stained glass, iron processing, shipbuilding . Along with the difficulty of loose small artisans and farmers, slavery was spread. In 3 thousand to n. e. The revived trade in the Phoenician cities of the Lebanese coast with Egypt was conducted. In 2 minutes. BC. e. Trade relations were actively developed with Babylon , Caucasus, Malaya Asia. For pharaoh Tahmamia III Territory L. was included in the sphere of political. influence Egypt Ancient which, however, to the con. 2nd thousand to n. e. It began to weaken. At the 14th century BC e. Among the Phoenician states raised Sidon. In 13-12 centuries. BC e. Phoenicians achieved actual. Independence from Egypt. At 10 c. BC e. Hegemony in the region passed to the shooter; His king Ahram created the United Tiro-Sidonskaya state. However, after his death, a series of coups and uprisings was followed, the city-states became independent.
From 875 BC e. Began to conquer the territory of L. Assyria . In 814 BC e. Part of the population of Tira, headed by Princess Didona, fled from the city and founded on the territory of Sovr. Tunisia New settlement - Carthage . In 722 BC e. Assyria, having enlisted with the support of Dr. Phoenician cities, besieged and captured the shooting range. In 701 BC e. Assyrians suppressed the uprising in Sidion, in 677 BC. e. The city was destroyed. In con. 7th century BC e. L. territory passed under power Babylonia . In 539 BC e. After the fall of the Novovavilon kingdom, the china was attached to the Persian Power, which consisted of states in which city remained autonomy. However, already from 4 c. BC e. Antiperside moods began to grow in Foothenia. As a result, the city began in Sidone the city was captured by PERS. Army and destroyed. In 333 BC e. The troops entered the candy Alexandra Macedonsky . Tir refused to recognize his power and in 332 BC. e. After a 6-month siege was taken by storm. After the collapse of the Power of Alexander the Macedonian Territory L. fell under power Ptolemaev , and in gray. 3 in. BC e. - Seleucidov . During this period, the intensive Hellenization of the country began. In con. 2 - Nach. 1 centuries. BC e. In the slopes of antivan and in Hermele, the Itoreian kingdom arose with the capital in Halkida. In 64 BC e. - 3N. e. Territory Sovr. L. was conquered by the troops of Rome. commander Pompei And entered Rome. Empire (prov. Syria). In the Rome period. The domination occurred economy. The revival of coastal cities L., Berit turned into an important military. And the Roman Shopping Center in the East. In Bible and Baalbek, extensive temple construction was conducted. With gray 1 in. In L. began to spread Christianity. In 4 c. It entered the East. Roman Empire (see Byzantium ). In the beginning. 7th century L. Captured by Iranians and in 611 became part of Iran. Satrapia. Restored in 622 vistent. The dominion was short: from 628 L. was subjected to raids of Arabs and in 636 was conquered by them. In 7-8 centuries. he was in possession Omeyadov , in 8-9 centuries. - Abbasida , in 9-10 centuries. - Tulunides and Ishidide, in 10-12 centuries. - Ismailitsky Khaliphata Fatimid . During the reign of Arab. Dynasties The prosperous city of the coast turned into small fishing villages. In 7-11 centuries. all in. L. from the valley r. El Asi (ORONT) moved the Christian community of Maronites. In the beginning. 11 V. Durable positions in L. won Musulm. Sect Druz.
In 1099 in L. invaded Crusaders (see Cross hiking ). After the capture of Jubaille in 1102 and Tripoli in 1109 by the Ramon de Saint-Gila, as well as in 1110 Beirut and Sidon, the King of Jerusalem Baldwin I (1100-18) coast and b. h. Mountain areas L. found themselves in the hands of the Crusaders. Seaside and mountainous areas north of Bible became part of Tripoli's county, and Beirut and Sidon became the lands of the Jerusalem kingdom. The resistance to the Crusaders in the Al Garb Mountain Area, which was adjusted to Beirut, headed Druz under the leadership of the bayist dynasty. For participation of druses in this struggle Muslim. The rulers of Damascus recognized the supremacy of Buchhteur in the El Garb area. To con. 13 V. Crusaders were expelled from the Middle East, and their possessions to the east. Mediterranean coast. Captured Mamluk Sultanatom . In 1289 Pal Tripoli, in 1291 - AKKA. In con. 13 - NCH. 14 centuries. Mamluki Made a number of punitive hikes to the mountain L., where Christians and Shiites lived. MN. Villages and settlements were burned. During the period of Mamluk Sultanate. L. was part of the prov. Tripoli; South. L. (Beirut and Sidon), together with the Valley of Becaa, was an OCD. Baalbek, one of the four who came into the prov. Damascus. In prov. Tripoli chapters of Maronite villages (Mukadama) received from Sultan the right to collect taxes. South. L. and the Valley of Bekaa Mamluki confirmed the rights to control Emirov Dynasty Buhteur in El Garba, Maanov - in Shufa and Shikhabov - In antivan.
Mussalayha Castle near El Batrun. 16th century 2006. Photo by A. I. Nagaeva
After the conquest of L. Ottoman Empire in 1516, the organization of local authorities remained the same. To con. 16th century Maana were recognized as the supreme leaders of the Druz, and the head of their family of Emir Fahr. AD-DIN II distributed power to the whole southern. L. and the Bekaa Valley. In the beginning. 17th century He subordinated the territories of the territory of the territory. L., and also means. Part of inside. Palestine and Syria regions contributed to the development of sovereign, the opening of Beirut and Sidon's ports for Europe. merchants, upgrades with. x-wa in Europe. sample. In 1608, Fahr Ad-Dean II concluded a trade agreement with the Grand Duke Tuscan, which led to an increase in tension in relations with the Ottoman Empire, who did not want to strengthen Maanov. In 1633, Emir's troops were broken, and he was captured (later killed in Istanbul). In the 1660, the Ottoman government created Pashalyk with the center in the side, putting under his control Lebanon. The coast with Beirut and Mountain L. Dolina Bekaa and Anti-Livan entered Damasi Pashalyk, North. L. submitted to Pasha Tripoli. In 1667, the grand-nephew FakhR Ad-Dina II Ahmed Maan (Mind 1697) managed to restore the power of the genus Maanov over the south. L. and Maronite District Cassravan to the Center. Parts of the country, creating Lebanon. Emirate, who became the kernel of the Sovar. L. in 1697-98, after the restraint of the Maanov dynasty, the friends of L. Emir elected the ruler of L. Emir from the kind of Shikhabov. By 1711, Shikhaba reorganized the emirate control system and redesigned fees in it. possessions by betting on Arab Kaisitov . Under Emires Yusuf (1770-89) and adopted Christianity Bashira II (1789-1840), the power of the Shikhabov spread to the north, including the entire mountain L. in 1772 Emir Yusuf and the ruler. Palestine Sheikh Dagir entered into an alliance to fight against the Ottoman Empire. After the blockade of Sayda, the Ottoman fleet, Emir called for the rescue. parts of the Mediterranean M. Ros. A squadron, which in May 1772 liberated the Side, and in June of the same year - Beirut. At the end of the Russian tour. Wars 1768-74 (see Russian-Turkish Wars ) The Ottoman government again subdued the entire territory of L. in 1832 Emir Bashir II Shihab in order to exempted from Ottoman domination, as well as restrictions on the authorities of local feudalists entered into an alliance with Pasha Egypt Mohammed Ali And he recognized him with a tiny. In 1840, Ottomans with Brit. And Austra. The troops were broken by Mohammed Ali, and then lowered Bashira II Shihab. In 1841, army occurred on the territory of L.. Collisions between the friends and the Maronite population. Taking advantage of this conflict, the Ottoman government in 1842 abolished the autonomy of L. and transformed it into Sanjak , subordinate tour. Pashe. However, due to the counteraction of the local population, L. Direct Office was abolished. It was divided into 2 adm. Area (Kaimakia): Sev. L. led by the local Christian governor and southern. L., who was under the control of Druz. This section has strengthened the contradictions on the relig. Soil and caused the growth of antipodeal movements. In 1858, the peasants maronites in North. Kaimaki raised the uprising against the Maronite Aristocracy and achieved the abolition of a number of her privileges. In 1860, Maronite Peasants in the south of L. opposed the friends of the faeodals, to which the dubs responded with a mass rubber (Holy 11 thousand Christians died). Under the pressure of Europe. Power, primarily France, traditionally defended Maronites, the Ottoman government in 1861 introduced in Horny L. T. N. The organic statute, in accordance with which a single autonomous area (Mutasarrifia) was created led by the Ottoman Governor-Christian (Mutasarrif), appointed by Sultan from Europe's approval. countries. As a consistent. The organ under the governor acted an ADM. The Council, which came from representatives from the representatives. Lebanese communities are proportional to their numbers. In accordance with the Statute, all the subjects were guaranteed by chase. freedoms, ordered management and tax collection, the new administration is entrusted with proceedings and execution of laws; In L., the placement of Ottoman troops was forbidden.
With the adoption of the organic statute of L., he was in a strong dependence on the Zap. Power, especially from France. Ports, banking, transportation and tramples were in the hands of the European, we will give. Franz., Capital. Ottoman Sultan was considered the Supreme Owner of the Earth. In p. X, L. in Nach. 20 V. A major land tenure in small land use based on the isjondic lease dominated. The country prevailed workshop production. Under the influence of the Young Revolution of 1908 in L., National Refinement was activated. movement; In 1912, the League of Reforms was founded in Beirut. In 1913, the Lebanese took an active part in the work of the first Arab. Congress in Paris.
With the beginning of the 1st World War, the economy L., to. The degree deemed from the export to the raw silk and food to Europe. Supplies from France, declined. Territory L. was used a tour. and Germ. Command as a reference base. The country was built military. Objects, mass recovery of livestock and food were carried out. In 1915, an organic statute for the mountain L. was suspended, all power moved to the tour. military. Governor.
In accordance with Sykes-Pico Agreement 1916 on the Asian section. possessions of the Ottoman Empire, concluded between the United Kingdom and France, L., Zap. and east. Syria at the end of the war entered Franz. zone of influence. In Apr. 1920 L. Together with Syria received the status mandatory territory France. Power in the country passed to Franz. High Commissioner gene. A. Guro, who joined the mountain L. Coastal cities of Tripoli, Beirut, Sidon and Tir, Bekaa Valley, as well as territories adjacent to Tripoli and Tir, and in Saint. 1920 proclaimed the creation of the Great Lebanon. The new state is under the control of Franz. The governor, in which the elected Council of Representatives, who possessed consistent. features. In 1922. League Nations Reaffirmed the mandate of France on the Office of L. in 1926, a constitution was developed and adopted, according to which the Great Lebanon was transformed into Lebanon. The republic, and the Council of Representatives - to the House of Deputies, 1/3The members of which were appointed Franz. authorities. The Constitution left for France to control over foreign policy, defense and security of L. and provided for a confessional principle of distribution of places in parliament and government. In 1926, the post of President Lebanon. The republic was occupied by the Orthodox Christian Sh. Dabbas, but since 1934, the presidents of L. were elected only by Maronites. According to the last census conducted in L. in 1932, Christians accounted for approximately 55% of the population, while Maronites remained the largest Christian community, and the largest Muslims remain. The community at the time was Sunni. After 1937, the Prime Ministers were prescribed only Muslim Sunnis. The norm was the distribution of posts in the government and places in the unicameral parliament among representatives of the Split. Relig. Communities in proportion approximately corresponding to their number in the country.
World economy. Crisis 1929-33 sharply worsened the position of the population of L. Adverse economy. Conjuncture (prices for products with. x-va fell 5 times) led to the massive rupture of the peasantry and the launch of Lebanon. Villages. Competition from art manufacturers. Shelke in the world market was the cause of the decline in silverhood and flush into L. in 1932 in the country, a mass boycot Forers began in the country. Concessions and monopolies. In connection with the strengthening of NC.-free. Movement Franz. Government Popular Front 11/30/1936 Signed the Franco-Lebanese Agreement, which envisaged the end of Franz. Mandate in L. in 1939. However, after the arrival in Apr. 1938 to power in France Government E. Daladye The ratification of this contract was torn.
After the start of the 2nd World War in L., a state of emergency was introduced, the constitution was canceled, the parliament was dissolved, the activities of Communist were prohibited. Parts (formed in 1924). In St. 1940 after France's surrender Representative of the government "Vichy" Adm. J. L. K. F. Darlan Granted Germany the right to use the territory of L. in economy. and military. The interests of the "axis" countries. Since May 1941 with military. Bases in L. began to be carried out against Brit. The troops deployed in Iraq. The export of food from L. in the state of the fascist block began. In response to this, the UK declared Blockade L., which aggravated the economy. The crisis in the country, began to expose Lebanon. The territory of daily actuators and air taxes.
Military parts "Free France" And Brit. Troops 8.6.1941 entered the territory of L. Franz. Commander-in-chief gene. J. Katra announced the abolition of Franz. mandate. Given the requirement Lebanon. Release. Movements, 11/26/1941 He confirmed a statement on the provision of L. Independence and the restoration of the Constitution of 1926, but with restrictions due "to the requirements of the military. time. " This contributed means. revitalizing party politics. L. L. in 1941 in L. The movement of hands originated. M. Afilak And S. Ad-Dean Bitar, who speaking under the slogans of Arab. Nationalism and unity Arab. The people [in 1943 their supporters were united in the Al-Baas Al-Arab org ("Arab Revival")], otherwise intensified by other nationalist. currents, including created in 1936 the Luch-Grahristian party Al-Katiaib Al-Lubnania ("Lebanon. Falangi"). In the conditions of increments of nat. Movement Franz. The authorities agreed to conduct parliamentary elections. At the victory in 1943 elections, B. Al-Huri blocked, which represented in the Osn. Christian population and advocated the immediate proclamation of independence L. and the liquidation of Franz. presence. In September of the same year, Al-Huri was elected President Lebanon. Republic. 8.11.1943 Lebanon. Parliament excluded from the Constitution of the country of the country, limiting it sovereignty in favor of Power-Mandatory. In response to this Franz. The authorities arrested al-Huri and the Prime Minister. S. As-Solha, Parliament dissolved and announced the termination of the Constitution, but under the influence of mass protests of the population were forced on 11/22/1943 to restore the legitimate government of L. This day was NAC. Holiday L. - Independence Day. In the autumn of 1943 by the President B. Al-Huri and the Prime Minister. S. AS-Solch has concluded an agreement on the principles of state. Devices L., known as "Nats. The pact ", in accordance with which places in parliament were distributed between Christians and Muslims in the ratio of 6 to 5, so that the total number of deputy mandates was multiple of eleven.
After proclaiming the full state. Sovereignty Lebanon. The government took the active steps to strengthen the international. Positions of the country. In aw 1944 It established diplomacy. Relations from the USSR, in Fevr. 1945 joined K. Antihytler coalition And declared war in Germany and Japan. In March 1945 L. participated in the creation League of Arab states (LAG), in the same year he became PL. UN.
At the end of the 2nd World War, France tried to preserve his presence in L. and demanded from Lebanon. The signing of the contract, which would strengthen its military.-politics. and economy. Positions in the country. On Dec. 1945 France and the United Kingdom concluded an agreement on which their troops introduced in L. in 1941 should have remained on its territory indefinitely. In response to this in L., a massive movement for the complete conclusion from its territory is foreign. troops. Lebanon. The government refused to negotiate with France on the signing of a new treaty and appealed to the UN Security Council, where he was supported by the USSR, Poland and Egypt. The United Kingdom and France were forced to start the evacuation of troops from L. (ended to 12/31/1946).
The conquest of independence contributed to the development of nat. Economy L. The large enterprises and banks belonging to Nats were created. Capital, the government has nationalized a number of most significant foreign ones for the ransom. enterprises. At the same time, major land tenure in p. x-ve was not liquidated; 75% of the peasants remained landless. Foreigner Monopolies, primarily French, retained dominant positions in the economy of L., quickly strengthened the positions of Amer. Capital. In 1948 Lebanon. The government concluded an agreement with the United States on construction through the territory of L. Amer. oil pipeline, in 1951-1961 L. received economy. Help from the US government.
With the development of nat. Economy in L. Increased working motion. In St. 1946 The Federation of Trade Unions of Workers and employees L. (founded in 1943) achieved the adoption of the Law on Labor established for workers prom. 8-hour business days and paid leave.
In 1948-49 L., along with Dr. Arab. Gos-you took part in the war against Israel (see Arab-Israeli Wars ). Using the complication of politics. Situations in the Middle East, in Jan. 1948 B. Al-Huri banned the activities of Communist. Parties and dismissed trade unions. In 1949, progressive socialist was created. Party (PSP), led by the leader of the Friend Community K. Jumblat (see Art. Jumblat ); The Parliament formed the opposition nat. Socialist. front. In the same year, the authorities revealed a conspiracy organized by CIR. Social nationalist. Party (SSNP) led by A. Saad, who spent the union of L. with Syria. In 1951 Premier Min. S. Ase Solh is killed by a member of the SSSP.
President B. Al-Huri (right) among Lebanon's political figures. Photo beginning. 1950s.
In 1952 opposites. Deputies Lebanon. Parliament put forward a reform program. In its support in Saint. 1952 In L., a general strike began. 18.9.1952 B. Al-Huri was forced to leave the presidency. The new chapter of the State in the same year, parliament elected one of the leaders of the opposition K. Shamun. In con. 1952 He began practicing. Implementation of the reform program: changed the election. The system, introduced a direct vote, provided the right to vote in the elections to women who had primary education. Shamun conducted a policy aimed at developing cooperation with both Arabic and Zap. Countries. L. Delegation took part in Bandung Conference 1955. Asia and African countries, at the same time in 1957 L. joined Eisenhauer Doctrine . The "equilibrium policy" caused displeasure of supporters of the close union L. with Arab. Countries. In the spring of 1957 in L., the opposition to the Government of Shamun Nats was formed. The front, which included PSPs, a party of Shiite leader A. Bizri, Nats. Organization M. Khalida and others. In May - June 1957, mass anti-government passed in the country. Demonstrations. In May 1958, in response to Shamun's attempt to change the Constitution in order to achieve re-election by the president for a new term, the uprising broke out, which was headed by the Beed. Prime Ministers R. Karama and A. Al-Yafi. Despite the help of the detachments of the Maronite Party "Katiaib", as well as designed in L. Amer. The troops, the Government of Shamun suffered a defeat in the fight against the rebels. In September of the same year, the enemy Shamun is elected new president of L., the commander of the army of the gene. F. Shihab, Prime Minister appointed R. Karam. The authorities announced the policy of "positive neutrality". In oct. 1958 Amer. The troops are derived from L. New Lebanon. The government has enjoyed broad societies. support. Lebanon undertaken. Military In 1961, attempting to his overthrow did not have success.
Under the influence of large strikes in Beirut and Tripoli in 1962-63 Parliament L. in Con. 1964 adopted a law on social insurance of the population. In 1965 PSP, KP Lebanon and the Arab movement. Nationalists created the front patriotic. and progressive parties. In the context of the financial crisis caused by the bankruptcy of the leading commerce in the country in 1966. Bank L. "Intra", the front topped holding strikes and mass protests. In contrast to him the right Christian party "Katiaib", Nats. The block and the National Liberal Party (NLP) formed a triple union. In June 1967, in connection with the beginning of the new Arab-Israeli war, Lebanon. The government blocked the supply oil pipelines. Companies interrupted diplomacy. Relations with the United States and Great Britain, banned Amer. military. Ship goes to the ports of L. Although L. did not directly participate in the war, she inflicted a heavy blow to its economy: the outflow of capital abroad increased, revenues from tourism were reduced, prices increased, unemployment increased.
After the war, 1967 internal political. The situation in L. and his relationship with Israel was significantly complicated. In L. found shelter hundreds of thousands of Palestinians, part of the combat units were also evacuated to the country Organization of the liberation of Palestine (OOP), including its main. Org Fath. . These detachments began to perform with Lebanon. The territory of the attack on the settlements in the north of Israel and the location of the dislocation of Israeli parts. Israel's army answered it with bomb strikes and raids to the south. Areas of L. in order to defeat the camps and the Bases of the OOP. Under these conditions, Christian parties began to persistently demand from the government so that it takes hard measures against OOP and occupied a neutral position in the conflict between Palestinians and Israelis. But for the disputes of the "Palestinian question" were hidden deeper contradictions between the Split. confessional communities and politics. Groupings of the country.
In Jan. 1969 The Government of R. Karama promised to strengthen the country's defense capability, to ensure reliable protection of its borders and sovereignty and establish closer cooperation with Arab. Countries. Christian parties refused to support him. Cabinet Karama Pal in Apr. 1969, after south. L. army occurred. Collisions between Lebanon. The army and detachments of Palestinians. In the fall of 1969 Lebanon. The army began fighting against army. OOP formations. PSP and Muslims were supported by Palestinians. Country groupings, as well as Egypt and Syria. The latter temporarily closed the border with L. as a result of negotiations in Cairo between Lebanon. The authorities and leaders of the OOP were reached an agreement for which Palestinians received the right to be located in L., but they pledged to coordinate their actions with Lebanon. authorities. In nov 1969 A new Karama government has been formed, which also includes representatives of Christian parties. In May 1970, after the next promotion of the OOP detachments against Israel, the army of the latter conducted a large-scale military. Operation in south. Lebanon.
Palestinian refugees. Beirut. Photo. 1976.
In St. 1970 New President L. became the representative of the Centrist Forces S. France. In the autumn of the same year, the situation in L. was further complicated in connection with the evacuation on its territory from the Jordan of new combat formations of the OOP after their defeat of the Jordanian army in Saint. 1970. France tried to achieve reconciliation between opposing politics. Forces - block of PSP and Muslim. Org organizations, on the one hand, and Christian parties - on the other. Governments S. Salama (1970-73), A. Al-Hafeza (1973) and T. As-Solha (1973-74) consisted of representatives of both camps, but relations between them continued to worsen. In May 1973, collisions began between Lebanon. Governments. troops and Palestinian detachments. As a result, Palestinian organizations were forced to go for some concessions in accordance with the Melkart Protocol signed as an annex to the Cairo Agreement 1969. "Katiaib" and others. Christian parties demanded increased control over Palestinian detachments. Most Muslims. Politicians supported OOP. The largest politics. L. movement began to create their own armed. formation. From spring 1974, collisions began to occur between them. After 13.4.1975 in the metropolitan Christian quarter Ain Rumman in response to the murder of the bodyguards of his leader P. Zhmailee (see Zhmail ) Members of the Katiaib Party attacked the bus with Palestinians, in L. broke out of the chase. War. On the side of the Palestinians, the block of NC.-Patriotic. Forces (NPS) led by PSP. In turn, the leader of PSP K. Jumblat put forward a politician program. Reforms, demanding a fundamental to change the current system of organization of power. In an effort to put an end of army. Collisions, Fajnie prescribed 1975 military in May. The government led by N. Rifai, but the NPS unit refused to recognize it. After the fierce battles, with the mediation of Syria in L., a shaky compromise was achieved: to the government "nat. Unity ", led by R. Karam, entered representatives of the opposing forces. However, this could no longer stop the chase. War. In St. 1975 is formed by NC. Dialogue, but his participants could not agree among themselves: Christian parties demanded the gracious of the Palestinians and the restoration of Lebanon. The government of control over the entire territory of the country, and the NPS is to conduct politics. Reforms and redistribution of power between Muslims and Christians. In Jan. 1976 Military Lebanon. Christians began the blockade of two Palestinian refugee camps in the suburb of Beirut. It was used by Syria for interference in the events that took place in L. President Syria X.
Hezbollah Forced multiethnic forces in Fevr. 1984 Leave L. 5.3.1984 A. Zhmaile adopted Syria's requirements and announced the abolition of an agreement with Israel concluded in 1983. After that, in March 1984, a new conference was held in L., after which the Government was formed in the country. . Unity "led by R. Karama, which included the former. President K. Shamun, P. Zhmail (leader of the Kathaib party), N. Berry, influential Musulm. Politician S. Al Hoss (Premier Min. in 1976-80) and representatives of the PSP. Leading role in Lebanon. Affairs began to play Syria. In June 1985, Israel unilaterally brought his troops with most of the Lebanon. The territory, retaining control only over the "security zone" (controlled by the Itsist "Army of South. Lebanon" under the commands. gene. A. Lahada).
After the bomb explosion in Zaile in Saint. 1985 Sir was introduced into the city. troops. Syrians also entered Tripoli. GL The ally of Syria in L. from May 1985 was the AMAL organization. On Dec. 1985 V. Jumblat, N. Berry and the commander "Lebanon. Forces "E. Hobike signed an agreement on the placement of SIR in Damascus. The troops in the zones that were under the control of their groupings. President A. Zhmaile refused to ratify the agreement, the hobike was shifted from his post, and the new commander "Lebanon. Forces "became S. Zhea. In response, Syria prompted Lebanon. Ministerial Muslims Start 1.1.1986 Boycott of the President, who lasted before his depart from the post in 1988.
The confrontation broke out in the Shiite camp, where the rivalry between the IMAL and Hezbollah org organizations aggravated. In March 1984, Hezbollah members kidnapped the head of the CIA Department in Beirut W. Buckley. After that, the abduction of journalists, diplomats, clergymen, scientists and military began. From March 1988 on Dec. 1990 There were collisions in the south of L. and south between the troops of the Org-Qii "Amal" and Hezbollah. Beirut's suburbs.
In 1987 R. Karam was killed, the post of Prime Minister. Temporarily took S. al-Hoss. In 1988, the term of the presidential powers of A. Zhmaile was approached by the end. Due to acute politics. The offense parliament could not get together to elect a new chapter of the state. Leaving the post of president in Saint. 1988, Zhmayle assigned teams. Army gene. M. Auna Prime Minister of Transitional Military. Governments. AUN, entitled, began to fulfill the obligations of the head of the state. Musulm. And the Project leaders refused to recognize him and put forward the Prime Minister. S. al-Hossa. In L. boldness appeared. In March 1989, military resumed in the country. Actions. With the participation of the formed Lag Committee, which includes Algeria, Saud. Arabia and Morocco, the Charter of Nats was developed. Lebanon's consent. So. Part of Lebanon. Parliamentarians, arrival in Et-Taif (Saud. Arabia), 10/22/1989 approved the Charter. Taifa agreements provided for the achievement of a compromise between Lebanon. communities with actual. Hegemony in the country of Syria. Christians agreed to conduct politics. Reforms and the redistribution of powerful powers between representatives of the Split. Confresions, an equal number of places in parliament for deputies from Christians and Muslims. The presidential post remained behind Maronites. In nov 1989 A supporter of cooperation L. with Siria R. Moavad was elected to this position. But after 17 days after the entry into office, he was killed. Instead, the president was Dr. Pro. Pro. Island Politician - I. Khruya. The post of Prime Minister took S. al-Hoss.
Gene. M. Aun did not recognize Taif agreements and refused to leave the presidential palace in Beirut. He announced the beginning "free. Wars "against Syria. However, the parties faithful to him were gradually displaced from all strategically important points. In oct. 1990 under the blows of the CIR. Aviations they capitulated, Aun hid in Franz. The embassy in Beirut and later went to France. Chase War in L. ended. By officer. According to 1975-90, 94 thousand chases were killed in the country in the country. persons, 115 thousand people. 20 thousand people were injured. They were missing, 800 thousand people. fled abroad. General material damage from the chase. Wars amounted to 6-12 billion US dollars.
In oct. 1990 I. Khruyui and H. Assad agreed on t. N. Security plan in L. He provided for the restoration of Lebanon. The army capable of controlling the entire territory of the country, the dissolution of the army. The formations and delivery of weapons, as well as the creation of a new government. The leaders of the militias with some reservations gave consent to the dissolution of their parts. In oct. - Nov. 1990 with Iran. and sire. The mediation "Amal" and "Hezbollah" agreed to terminate the confrontation. On Dec. 1990 The last parts of the Christian militia were removed from Beirut. In the same month, the new government "Nats. Unity "headed by O. Karam (Brother R. Karama), which includes an equal number of representatives from Christians and Muslims. In accordance with the decision of the government in 1991, most army are dissolved and disarmed. formations movements and parties. The government appointed 40 new parliament deputies, in which there was now an equal number of Christians and Muslims. In May 1991, the presidents of Syria and Lebanon signed an agreement on fraternity and coordination in Damascus. In July of the same year, after four-day battles, a peaceful agreement was concluded between the Government of L. and OOP: Palestinians pledged to pass all the heavy weapons in exchange for the guarantee of the chase. Rights for 350 thousand refugees. The release of Zap. hostages kidnapped by extremist groupings. The tension persisted only in the south of the country, where the hezbollah and Palestinians on Israel and the Army of South continued. Lebanon "and response raids of the Israelis. In May 1992, the Government of O. Karam resigned after a four-day universal strike, organized by trade unions in protest against heavy efficiency. provisions. The head of the new cabinet, which includes 12 ministers from Christians and Muslims, R. Ace Solch was appointed.
In aw - Saint. 1992 Lebanon. The authorities conducted the parliamentary elections on the new system in coordination with Syria. Most Christian parties called for their boycott, protesting against the presence of Sir's presence. The troops in Beirut and its surroundings, which, in their opinion, contradicted the conditions of Taif's agreements. Although the voting took part only insignificant. Part of the Christian voters, the elections were recognized as held. The success on them was accompanied by the IMALE org organizations, Hezbollah, supporters V. Jumblat, S. Al-Hoss and O. Karam. In the Christian camp, Victory went to supporters of T. S. Fanjie (grandson S. Fazy) and the president. Parliament elected the Prime Minister of the Billionaire R. B. Al-Hariri, who formed the Cabinet with the participation of 15 Muslims and 15 Christians. Important ministerial posts received E. Hobayik, T. S. France and V. Jumblat. The new government established control over the zone, which was previously under the control of Hezbollah, achieved from the IMF to provide a loan L. in the amount of $ 175 million, as well as loans and assistance from Italy, EU, Arab. countries and Lebanon. emigrants totaling $ 1 billion.
In 1993, the situation in L. again aggravated. Periodically occurred collisions between the Split. Palestinian groups, as well as between "Hezbollah" and security forces. On Dec. 1993 Bombs were blown up at the headquarters of the Katiaib Party, in Fevr. 1994 - in the Maronite Church in Zuk-Mikhail. In an effort to stop the wave of violence and terror, the authorities banned the conduct of mass demonstrations, in March 1994 they restored the death penalty for the deliberate murder. In the same month, the ban was announced "Lebanon. Forces, "And in April, their leader S. Zhea, accused of involvement in the explosion in the church and to the murder in 1990 of the leader NLP D. Shamuna. In June 1995, thirst and 6 of his supporters were sentenced to life imprisonment.
The confrontation continued in the south of the country between Hezbollah and Palestinians, on the one hand, and Israel - on the other. After repeated attacks on the Israeli territory and the "Army of South. Lebanona "Israel Nanom in July 1993 strikes on the bases" Hezbollah "and Nar. The front of the liberation of Palestine, which led to the emergence of polynomials. Victims and refugees. The massive towing of Israeli aviation on the Hezbollah bases continued in 1994 and 1995 and caused response rocket shelling of the territory of Israel. In Apr. 1996 Israeli troops conducted a major punitive operation to the south. L. CODE Named. "Breaks of Wrath".
In oct. 1995 Parliament L. In accordance with the wishes of Syria, I extended the powers of I. Khoreui as president for another 3 years. In aw - Saint. 1996 were held the second after the end of the chase. War parliamentary elections. In Beirut, the supporters of R. al-Hariri defeated them ("Becutskoye"), in the south and in the Valley of Bekaa - "Amal" and "Hezbollah", in the mountain L. - supporters V. Jumblates, in the north - T. S. Fanta and O. Karam. Party "Katiaib", some of which refused the boycott of elections, could not hold a single candidate to parliament. The government again formed al-Hariri. However, his new cabinet had to face a growing opposition, corruption charges and protests of trade unions. In 1997, Hezbollah leaders called on the population to the chase. Disobedience and non-payment of taxes, and also organized a march of protest to Beirut. Despite the fact that Dec. 1996 Credit Countries promised to provide L. Credit for recovery in the amount of $ 3.2 billion, the situation in the country's economy remained difficult.
In 1998 Lebanon. Parliament elected the president of the country's country. Commander Lebanon. Army gene. E. Lakhud, who enjoyed Syria's support. Between the new head of state and the prime minister began the acute struggle for power; The prime minister accused the president in violation of the Constitution. On Dec. 1998 Lahoud appointed new Prime Minister S. Al-Hoss. The Government formed by him included prominent politicians, a number of parliamentarians and technocrats. By agreement between the President and Prime Minister, members of the parties were not represented in the office, which proclaimed the program for the revival of the economy, the recovery of the state. Finance, as well as conducting the ADM. reforms.
In the beginning. 2000 s south. L. again observed an escalation of army. confrontation between Hezbollah, on the one hand, Israel and the "Army of South. Lebanon, "on the other. In May 2000, Israel unilaterally brought his troops from the south. L. "Army South. Lebanon "broke up, her leaders led by A. Lahad emigrated. Lebanon. The government restored sovereignty over the former. "Safety zone."
In the parliamentary elections in Aug. - Saint. 2000 Supporters of the Government of S. al-Hoss suffered crushing. defeat. The supporters of R. al-Hariri ("dignity") defeated in Beirut ("Dignity"), in the Northern L. - V. S. Fajblata, in the north of the country. In the south of the country, success was accompanied by the AMAL and Hezbollah org organizations. After the elections, Al-Hariri headed the new "government of the consent", which was supported by the OSN. Parliament factions.
B. , who took the post of President of Syria in 2000 after the death of his father H. Assad, sought to preserve control over L., but took steps to reduce Sir on its territory. military. presence. In 2001 of L., part of the Sir is derived. troops. In aw 2001 in L. arrested St. 200 Christian activists accused of "Antysyrian conspiracy" and cooperation with Israel, and tightened control over the media. Trying to reduce the size of the state. Debt, Cabinet R. Al-Hariri rose on the path of rigid economy, took steps to increase tax rates, conducted privatization of the state. enterprises. In nov 2002 Government L. discussed with Zap. Lenders plan restructuring of the country's foreign debt. Despite the persistent difficulties, Lebanon. The authorities succeeded in 2002 to avoid default and devaluation of nat. Currencies.
R. Al-Hariri, who left 10/20/2004, resigned from the post of Prime Minister, 14.2.2005 killed by the enems of Sir. Presence in the country. After his death in L., mass demonstrations began, participants who demanded a complete output from the CIR country. troops. In L. formed a pro-Western coalition of political. Forces "Alliance March 14". 26.4.2005 Last Sir. Parts left Lebanon. territory. These events received in L. Nazv. "Cedar Revolution."
In the south of L. 12.7.2006, the clashes began between the detachments of Hezbollah and Israel's army. As a result of the conflict killed St. 1 thousand Lebanese and OK. 170 Israelis, in L. seriously injured the chase. Infrastructure, including International. Airport in Beirut. The conflict ended on 14.8.2006 after adopting the UN Security Council Resolution No. 1701, who called on Israel and Hezbollah to the truce.
Prime Minister Lebanon S. Al-Hariri (left) and President of Syria B. Assad. Damascus. Photo. 2009.
At those held in L. 7.6.2009 the next parliamentary elections won the coalition "Alliance March 14", which received 71 mandates (from 128). 27.6.2009 The Prime Minister of the country became S. al-Khariri, son of R. al-Khariri.
Russia stands for the preservation of unity, territorial integrity, independence and sovereignty L. She contributed to the cessation of chase. Wars in L. 1975-90 and the Lebanon-Israeli conflict in July - Aug. 2006. The Government of L. for its part supports Russia's active participation in the Middle Eastern peace process.
President of the Lebanese Republic M. Suleiman. Photo. 2008.
Ros.-Lebanon is actively developing. politics. Dialogue. In 1997, the first officer was held in the history of bilateral relations. Visit in the Russian Federation Premier Min. Lebanon R. Al-Hariri. In nov 2001 and March 2003 Al-Hariri visited our country with working visits and was adopted by V. V. Putin . 10/17/2003 During the summit Organizations of the Islamic Conference Putin's meeting with Al-Hariri took place in Malaysia. Come to Moscow on a working visit on December 14-12, 2006 Premier Min. Lebanon F. A. B. Signora met with Putin. Min. in. Affairs of the Russian Federation S. V. Lavrov Visited L. in 2004, 2006 and 2009. On Dec. 2008 was an officer. Visit to Russia Lebanon. min. Defense I. Murra. Active contacts between the two countries are supported by the parliamentary line. Repeatedly in Russia was prominent Lebanon. politics. The figure of S. al-Hariri, who met in May and Aug. 2006, Jan. and Nov. 2007 and in November. 2008 with Putin. In Feb. 2010 Moscow visited the officer. President of Lebanon M. Suleiman, who met with President of the Russian Federation D. A. Medvedev.
Economy. Communication of the Russian Federation and L. develop unevenly. Ros.-Lebanon. Trade is represented by ch. arr. Ros. exports of oil and petroleum products ($ 500 million, 2008), grain, lumber and metal products. In March 1998, the first and only meeting of intergovernmentals took place in Beirut. Ros.-Lebanon. Commissions for trade and economy. cooperation. In St. 2004 During the stay of the delegation Ros.-Arab. Business Council in Beirut was formed Ros.-Lebanon. Business Council.
As part of the emergency call, the UN of the Russian Federation provided L. in Aug. 2006 Urgent Humanitarian Aid. In L. was also deployed also grew. military.-Ing. contingent (308 people) in order to assist the Lebanese republic in restoring off. objects of its transport infrastructure.
In higher educational institutions former. The USSR and the Russian Federation received the formation of St. 10 thousand Lebanon. citizens. Ros. The party continues the practice of granting gratuitous scholarships (quota - 35 seats per year) for learning the Lebans in Russia.
The basis of the economy L. - the scope of services. The amount of GDP (by purchasing power parity) is $ 44.2 billion (2008), per capita - 11.1 thousand dollars. Human Development Index 0.803 (2007; 83rd among 182 countries of the world).
Cement plant of the Swiss company Holcim in Shekki. Holcim Group.
As a result of the chase. Wars 1975-90 L. lost the position of the banking and shopping center in the Middle East; So. part of the prom. Objects were destroyed, the volume of prom. Production has decreased by 50%. The developed banking sector contributed to the restoration of the country's economy (they played a crucial role in recreating infrastructure facilities), as well as international. Financial assistance. After the restrictions on the Forers in 1997 are removed in 1997. Capital in economy. The life of the country in L. was opened by St. 900 branches of foreign. Companies (approx. 150 amer., Ok. 90 Franz., Ok. 90 Brit., St. 75 Swiss., St. 40 Panamansky et al.). Since 2002, the privatization of energy facilities, water supply, transport and telecommunications was carried out. Companies. To the beginning of the army. Conflict in 2006 The country's economy was on the rise (bank assets exceeded $ 75 billion, market capitalization reached $ 10.9 billion), tourism (St. 2 million people, 2004) developed rapidly. After the cessation of the military. actions began slow restoration of the economy; Economy. Help L. provided Saud. Arabia, Persian Hall countries. and the state of the EU. Real GDP GDP 6.3% (2008).
In the structure of GDP, the share of the service sector is 76.1%, prom. - 18.8%, p. x-va - 5.1% (2008). OK. 75% of GDP is created in the private sector; Small and medium manufacturers in it means. degrees are focused on exporting products.
The most important industries - electric power, mining Miser. Raw materials and production of building materials, chemical, light, food prom..
Production of electricity 9.0 billion kW ·h (2007). St. 90% of the production and distribution of electricity performs state. Company "Electricit. édu liban "; She belongs to 7 TPPs (the largest - in the cities of Zuk, Ez-Zahrani and Dair Ammar), 6 hydroees (the largest - on the r. El Litani), as well as a controlling stake in Kadisha company (electricity producer in north. Parts l .). L. imports electricity (972 million kW ·h, 2007) from Syria.
Oil refinery in Tripoli and Ez-Zahrani do not operate (2009). The need for petroleum products is fully satisfied at the expense of imports from Arab. states. In Beirut work several. Equipment for the assembly of the ultimate machine-building. products from imported parts, as well as packaging of imported goods for re-exports in other countries of the region. Stone salt, limestone, sand, gypsum, gravel are mined in small industries. Cement production is 4.9 million tons (2007; at all. For export). OSN. Centers: Shekki (companies' factories: Swiss. Holcim with a capacity of 2.6 million tons per year; Cimenterie Nationale - 2.1 million tons per year; "Seament" - 0.5 million tons per year ) And Siblin ("Ciment de Sibline", OK. 1.3 million tons per year). Chemical. Prom-ST is represented by production of phosphoric fertilizers, phosphoric and sulfuric acids (LEBANON CHEMICALS COMPANY plant in the city of Selat), detergents, plastics, cosmetic. and medicines, etc.
Woodworking, furniture prom enterprises. Production of jewelry, souvenir products. From the branches of the light promo, textile (St. 50% of the products are exported) and sewing are the greatest value. Traditionally developed winemaking (ch. Arr. For export). B. Part Prom. Power is located in large cities.
Processed St. 16% of the country's territory (2005). The most fertile lands are in the coastal strip and the Bekaa Valley. Agrarian production is satisfying internal. needs; Some products are exported. Grow grains (premie. Wheat and barley), vegetables, potatoes, fruits (oranges, apples) and tech. Cultures (Sugar Sweet, Tobacco) - Ch. arr. in the Bekaa Valley; Olives - in North. parts l.; Citrus and bananas - on the coast of the Mediterranean M.; Avocado - in the area of Jabyl. Viticulture is distributed in the OSN. in the vicinity of Zahl.
Livestock is developed in mountainous areas and in Northeast L. Break (2004) goats (450 thousand heads), sheep (350 thousand heads), cattle (80 thousand heads). With con. 20 V. Milk cattle breeding is developing: in the north of L. and in the Bekaa Valley there are several. Middle and large dairy farms.
The value of fisheries is small. B. h. Claw - Mor. Fish (chap. Tuna). River fish are caught in Oz. El Caruown, El Litani and Ibrahim Rivers; There are farms for breeding carp and trout.
Banking sector and tourism have the greatest importance. Financial services include a banking and credit sector, insurance business, stock activities. In the 1950s - Ser. 1970s. L. was a major regional financial center; During the chase. Wars the banking sector continued to remain the basis of the economy. In the 1990s. There was a rapid growth of bank deposits ($ 6.5 billion in 1992; $ 33.9 billion in 1999), Lebanon. Banks went to the international. market. The financial sector includes the center. Bank (Bank Lebanon), commerce. and investment. Banks. There is a Beirut Stock Exchange.
Spa zone G. Junia. Photo Georges Emile.
Tourism (cultural and educational, environmental, beach holiday) plays an important role. In the cities of Beirut, Side, Tir, Tripoli, Juni, Zahla, Baalbek, etc. Located a numerous. Objects of cultural heritage. Traditionally, tourists attract Casino Du Liban (Juniya; one of the largest in the Middle East). Restoration and modernization of tourism is carried out. Infrastructure (new hotels are built, including international networks). Traditionally, it means. The number of lebans living abroad regularly hold leave in Lebanon.
The length of roads is OK. 7000 km, including high-speed roads - 170 km (2005). OSN. The motorway is a coastal highway (connects. And south. Parts L.), Beirut - Damascus (Syria). The length of the railways is 401 km, including roads with a standard gauge width - 319 km (2006). J.-D. The message does not work, b. h. Roads are destroyed (2009). Mor. Transport means it means. Part of foreign trade transportation. L. belongs to 33 more. commercial vessels; Under the flags of other countries go 55 ships (2008). OSN. mor. Ports - Beirut (one of the largest in the Middle East; freight turnover of 5.7 million tons; St. 525 thousand containers of the DFE, 2008; there is a re-export free trade zone) and Tripoli. There are 7 airports (including 5 with a solid coverage of the runway, 2009). Intern. Airport them. Rafal Al-Hariri (Beirut; Opened after reconstruction in 2006).
Foreign economic relations
Characteristically denied. Balance Balance Balance: the cost of commercial exports is $ 5.0 billion, imports - $ 16.3 billion (2008). Export of jewelry, products Chemical. Prom-style, cement, textiles, various consumer goods, fruits, vegetables, etc. Import ch. arr. petroleum products, cars, electrical equipment, chemicals, medicines, paper, consumer goods. OSN. Export partners (%, 2008): Syria OK. 25, UAE OK. 13, Switzerland 6.6, Saud. Arabia 6.1; Import (%): Syria 10.5, France 9.5, USA 9.3, Italy 7.3, China 6.8, Germany 4.9, Saud. Arabia 4.8.
Army. Forces (Sun) L. consist of ground forces (SV), Air Force and Navy (only 56 thousand people; 2008), there are also militaries. formation - troops internal. security (13 thousand people). Military. Annual budget 631 million dollars. (2007).
The Supreme Commander of the Sun is the head of the State-Va - the President, which is carried out (nominally), leadership through the Supreme Council of Nats. Defense (members of the President - Prev, Head of Government, Ministers of Defense, Internal Affairs, Finance, and others. High-ended. Persons). Light. The guide is assigned to min. Defense, which is subordinate to the beginning. GSh. Min-in defense deals with weapons and military. Technician, GS develops plans to deploy and apply Sun, is responsible for just. Operational management of troops, organizes fighting preparation, helps Mid-Wu internal. Affairs in providing (restoration) Constitution. order.
The composition of the SV (53.9 thousand people) includes 5 regional commands, 11 motorway brigades, 3 separates. Brigades (presidential guard, support and military. Police), 11 regiments (5 - specials. Appointments, 1 - "Commandos", 1 - "Commandos" mor. Infantry, 1 landing assault, 2 art. and 1 honey), Communication divisions. 310 tanks are in service with SV. 1.2 thousand BTR and them like, 60 RM, St. 150 field artillery guns, approx. 370 mortars, 25 RSZO, 70 PU PTU and 8 Tactic. Unmanned la. Air Force (1 thousand people) Organizationally include 3 airbases (Beirut, glue, ryak) and 4 helicopter squadrons (1 - shock helicopters, 2 - general purpose helicopters and 1 training). In service: 6 combat and 8 training aircraft, 13 combat and 45 general-purpose helicopters. Ship composition of the Navy (1.1 thousand people) includes 2 small landing ships, 5 large and sv. 20 small patrol boats. OSN. Basement point - Beirut, the fleet is also based in the city of Junia.
Packing Sun from Feb. 2007 is carried out on a voluntary basis. Mobils. Resources make up st. 1 million people, including valid to military. Service 643 thousand
In addition to Sun, in L. there are armed. The formation of the grouping "Hezbollah" (approx. 3 thousand people), conducting operations against Israel sun, in their armament consist of a BTR, hard artillery, CRK.
In L. per 100 thousand lives. There are 240 doctors, 130 persons Wed. honey. Personnels and midwives, 90 dentists, 80 pharmacists (2004). General health expenditures account for 8.7% of GDP (budget financing - 43.5%, the private sector is 56.5%) (2005). The health care system is based on the provision of primary health care. OSN. Directions of the development of health care - immunization of the population, reorientation of general practitioners on primary honey. Help and sanitary control over the environment. Management is carried out by min-in health. Honey. Help provide state. and private hospitals. State Nat. The social security fund pays up to 90% of expenses (including hospitalization and medication on the list). OSN. Causes of death: Ischemic. Heart disease, vascular diseases of the brain, road injury, respiratory infections. Miloklimatic. The resort has zales.
The emblem of the Olympic Committee of Lebanon.
Olympic Kt L. Created and recognized as IOC in 1948. Athletes L. are involved in the Olympic Games since 1948 (London). In 1952, the first in the history of L. Olympic awards were conquered at the Olympic Games in Helsinki - Fighters Classic. Styles (now Greco-Roman) are awarded silver (Z. Chihab, a semi-light weight category) and bronze (H. Taha, 2nd weighted category) awards; In 1972 (Munich), the Silver Medal won the Schtongist M. Tarabulsi (Housing Category); In 1980 (Moscow), the bronze medal was awarded the Greco-Roman style fighter H. Bishar (the weight category of St. 100 kg). Since 1948, skiers of L. are participating in the Winter Olympics. Sports: wrestling, heavy athletics, shooting, fencing, swimming, tennis, chess. In 1933, the Football Association l.; FIFA was recognized in 1936. In 1958, L. Chess players debuted at the World Chess Olympiad in Munich. Men's team L. on tennis from 1957 participates in the Davis Cup, the women's team since 1993 - in the Federation Cup.
Education. Institutions of science and culture
The education system includes: preschool education of children from 3 to 5 years, a mandatory 6-year primary education (introduced in 1987), mean (3-year incomplete and 3-year-old complete) education; 3-year professional-technical. Education based on an incomplete high school, higher education. Pre-school education covered (2008) 70% of children, initial education - 95%, average - 82%. The literacy of the population over 15 years is 89.6% (according to UNESCO statistics). The higher education system includes colleges, in-you university status, un-you. GL Universities, scientific institutions, bd and museums are in Beirut , including the only state in the country. University - Lebanese University (1951). There are also no states. Un-You: University of Saint-Espiri de Caslik in Junia (1961), University of Notre Dam-Luez in Zuk-Mosbehe (1987), Balamandski University in Al-Kura (1988, in its composition Lebanon. The Academy of Elegant Software Founded in 1937), University of Antonin in Baabda (1996); UN-T Al-Islah (1982), UN-T Al-Gianin (1988), University of Al-Manar (1990), Amer. Technology. University (2001), University of Al-Fatech - all in Tripoli, Lebanon-Canadian University in Kesruian (2000), Sov. University of Business and Science in Hamre (2000). Branches Lebanon. Un-Tov - in Baalbek, Bekaa, Zaile, a bathrobe and other cities. There are a number of spiritual higher educational institutions, including University of St. Joseph (founded in 1875 Franz. Jesuits on the basis of the seminary existing with the 1870) includes F-T Relig. Sciences, the highest in-t Relig. Sciences, Institute of Islam-Christian Studies; UN-t wisdom (al-Hichm jamyat; founded in 1875; out of 6 F-TOV un-ta 2 religious: F-T church science and ft canonic. Rights); Islamic UN-T with the Higher Islamic Shiite Council of Lebanon (1995); In-t Theology of the Christian Union; The Middle Eastern School of Theology [Protestant Theological Seminary, founded in 1932 for the needs of evangelical. Churches (Lutheran) of the Middle East and North. Africa], arm. Theological seminary - all in Beirut; In-ts. John Damaskin at Balamad Un-Those (created in 1970 as theological F-T); Plotal Flat Theology (includes liturgich. IN-T, founded in 1969) at un-Saint-Espiri de Caslik; Beirut Islamic University (1986) includes F-T Sharia; Departments of Islamic Studies, Fundamentals of Religion, Islamic Legislation, Translation with UN-TE Al-Gynan; F-you theological sciences and pastoral research, biblical and ecumenich. Sciences and religions at UN-TE Antonina; University. Imam Al-Auzai (Islamic College) includes F-T Islamic Studies (created in 1979 as college, since 1986 F-T), Ftd Management of Islamic Business (1986). Museums: wax figures - in Jubaile (1969), ethnographic - in Zaile (2004), soap - in the side (open to visits in 2000); Open-air Museum in Rahan, H. Museum Jebrana in Basharri et al.
Among the largest nationwide newspapers (all - in Beirut, on Arab. Yaz.): Al-Amal ("Action" was founded in 1939, from 1946 daily; Cataib party batch; circulation approx. 35 thousand Ex.), Al-Anvar ("light"; from 1959, daily; approx. 75 thousand copies.), "Hell Diyar" ("Motherland"; from 1941, weekly; approx 25 thousand copies. ), Al-Liva ("Banner"; from 1970, daily; reflects the views of the Sunnic circles of Lebanon; approx. 79 thousand. Ex.), "An-Nida" ("Call"; from 1959, daily; organ of the Central Committee of Lebanon . Communist party; OK. 10 thousand. Ex.). Large newspapers on Arab. Yaz. - "An-Nahar", "As-Safir", "Al-Mustacbal", "Hell Diyar", etc. Communicates a number of newspapers to Franz. Yaz. (all - in Beirut): "L'Orient-Le Jour" ("East-Day"; from 1971, daily; approx. 25 thousand ex.), "Le Reveil" ("Awakening"; from 1908, daily; OK. 10 thousand copies), as well as in English. Yaz. - "The Daily Star". Among the largest societies.-Politics. Journals (all - in Beirut, on Arab. Yaz.): "As-Sayad" ("Hunter", founded in 1943, weekly; approx. 95 thousand copies.), Al-USBU Al-Arab ("Arab Week "; from 1959, weekly; approx. 88 thousand copies). The theoretical is published. And lit.-art. g. "AT-TARIK" ("Path"; from 1941, monthly, organ Lebanon. KP; approx. 5 thousand copies). Radio broadcasting since 1937. There are 32 VHF radio stations and 20 - in the range of square meters and sv; The largest - state. Radio Libal, commercial "Voice of Lebanon", "Radio Delta", "Radio 1". Television since 1959. There are 15 television channels (including 5 repeaters), including state "Tele Liba", Lebanon. Broadcasting Corporation (conducts transfer to the entire Middle East), commercial "Futher TV", Al-Manar TV (supports Hezbollah). State Info. Agency - Nats. Info. Agency (founded in 1962).
Lit-Ra L. develops ch. arr. on Arab. Jaz., with con. 19 - Nach. 20 centuries. - Also on Franz. Language. Cf.-century. LIT-RA L. - part Arab-Muslim culture . In the 1700s. all in. Syria was drawn up Sat. nar. Stories and anecdotes "Uslad Hendes" ("Nuzhat Al-Havatir"), in which Lebanon is widely represented. Folklore. In the Lebanon environment. Christians have taken the first attempts of typography on Arab. Yaz. (Liturgich Sat. Texts, 1610; Book of Psalms, 1706; Gospel, 1708). In 1732 (by other information, in 1733) in Mountain Mons. Esch-shuwiere is based on the first Arab. Typography. A powerful incentive for the development of Lit-Ry L. was t. N. Novoararaban Revival 18 V.: Creativity G. Farhat, author of the first intelligent dictionary ["Pearl Triads" (Al-Musallasate AD-Durier, 1705)] and first grammar ["Research of requests" (Bakhs al-Matalib, 1707 )] SOCK. Novoararaban Yaz., as well as poetic. Sat "Tezkire" (1720). Lit-Ry L. Flawed at the courtyard Shikhabov in con. 18 - 1st floor. 19th centuries when they were created Macama N. At-Turka ("Winter Macama", 1820, and others), Sofas N. Az-Saiga, Peregirich. Kasyda B. Karam.
In the 1850-70s. L. became one of the centers of Arab. enlightenment movement. Edition of the first Arab. gas. Al-Jawaib ("News", Istanbul, 1857) was initiated by Lebanon. Writer and philologist A. F. Ash-Shidiyak. First Lebanon. gas. "Khadikat Al-Akhbar" ("Garden of Events", Beirut, 1858) began to go under the editorship of the Orthodox poet H. Huri (poetic. Sat. "Flowers of Hills", 1857). Lebani leaders. Enlightenment were N. al-Yazyji [Creator of the Arab training course. asking (Treatise "Circle Point", 1848), Sofa (1852), Sat. Makas "Collection of the two seas" (1856)], B. al-Bustani (see Bustani. ) et al. Continuing the tradition of classic. Arab. Lit-ry with a complicated syntax characteristic of it, and dr., Writers 2nd floor. 19 - Nach. 20 centuries. At the same time, actively translated into Arab. Yaz. Works of Europe. and rus. Authors, mastered new genres. The first major prose. The works developed the traditions of the CP.-century. The genre of the fictional journey (Richlya): "Richl Salimiya" S. Butrus (1858), "Journey to Paris" F. Marrash (1867), who also became the author of the first Lebanon. Roman "Forest Rights" (1865) and cycle philos. Lyrics "Beauty Mirror" (1883). Poetry 2nd floor. 19th century Oriented in the OSN. on cf.-century. Samples: Sofa "Breath of foliage" H. al-Yazyji (1886), Sat. Poems "Garden of Roses" His sister V. Al-Yazyji (1907) and others. The founder of the Sov. Arab. Poets are considered a romantic H. Mutran.
All R. 19th century in L. Arab is born. The drama, the founders of which were M. Nokkash (Processing of the Moliere Comedy; Komich. Opera "Careless Abul Hassan, or Gaurn Ar-Rashid", ed. 1856), his brother N. N. Nekash (Sat. Pieces "Cedar Lebanon", 1869) and A. Ishak (processing tragedy P. Cornel, J. Rasin). At the turn of 19-20 centuries. In L., the genre of Arab is issued. Historic. The novel, whose naming agents were S. al-Bustani ("Zinovia", 1881; "Burur", "Love during the conquest of Syria", both 1882), J. N. Mudavar ("Muslim civilization in the city of prosperity", 1888), F. Antoon ("Beast! Beast! Beast! Or a trip to the Lebanese Kedram", 1903; "New World, or Maria Magdalene", 1904) and Ya. Sarruf ("Egyptian", 1905; "Lebanese Emir", 1907; " Fayum girl, 1908). In 1891 Roman J. Zaidan "Running Mamluk" is the first of the cycle covering the history of Arab. in the world in 7-13 centuries. Fame received historic. F. A. Bustani novels ("In the time of Emir", 1926, etc.).
In the work of Lebanon. poets of the 1920s. Tangibly influenced by Franz. Romanticism and symbolism: A. Mazhar, Y. Hasub and others. Noticeable phenomenon Arab. Lithing 1920-1940s. Became the search for leaders sir-american school (H. Jebrana , M. Nuayme , A. Ar- Reahani , poets I. A. Mada, R. Ayuba, etc.) who approved in Arab. Poets aesthetics of romanticism, which developed genres of Novels and the Verlibra of the "poem in prose" (Ash-Lire Al-Mansur).
In lit-re 20 century. So. The place is occupied by the educational direction: N. Al-Haddad novels ("All Fate", 1903; "New Eva", 1906; "New Adam", 1913), L. Kamila ("Mountain Legend", 1946), M. Abbuda ( "Red Emir", 1947, etc.), J. Khanna ("Temple Priests", 1952; "Mighty Ubewid", 1955; "Two years", 1960), T. Yu. Avwada ("Bread Leping", 1938 ; "Beirut mills", 1972), Prose and Dramaturgia R. Al-Huri (drama "Revolution Baidaba", ed. 1950); Lit. Criticism M. Dacrub (also known for its novels: Sat. "Palace and Long Street", 1954), H. Morurow (Treatises "Critical Studies in the Light of Realistic Method", 1965; "Sufi Current and Sufism in Society", 1980), Y. Al-ID, M. Savaya, A. Suwid, and others. Effect of Zap.-Europe. Philosophy, in particular, J. P. Sartre, was reflected in the novels S. Idris (autobiographies. Trilogy: "Latin Quarter", 1957; "Deep ditch", 1958; "Our burning fingers", 1962), L. Baalbeki (" I live! ", 1958;" ugly gods ", 1960), L. Asiran, etc.
In the center of Lebanon. prose 2nd floor. 20 V. - Events of the chase. Wars and Israeli intervention, as well as nostalgia on the pre-war l.: Surrealist. Prose G. As-Samman (Beirut 75 novels, 1974; "nightmares Beirut", 1976; "No sea in Beirut", 1979); Novels I. Huri ("Circle Communications", 1975; "Malaya Mountain", 1977; "Substantive", 1984), I. Hell Dearya ("Stay alone in repentance", 1974; "Killed rider", 1979 ; "Who creates the leader?", 1982), Yu. H. Al-Ashkara ("Four Red Konya", 1980; "The roots do not grow into the sky," 1983), A. Shaabana ("Death for free", 1977; " Hoster ", 1981;" Path to South ", 1988), R. Hell Dif (Mustabidd, 1983). In the story "Matilda House" H. Dauda (1983) The history of the murder grows into an ominous allegory of the destruction and death of Total L., covered by the madness of war. For the prose of "New Wave" (1970-80s), the intertwining of the eastern (in particular, Koranic) and the absurdist motives (E. Narullah, N. Musalame, N. Suleiman, A. Shabub, L. Assaf, H. Ash-Sheikh). Works Lebanon. Writers of the turn of 20-21 centuries. Dedicated to the search. connections and moral landmarks lost in 2 decades of nat. Tragedy: H. Barakat novels ("Stone laughter", 1990; "Air People", 1993; "Water Keeper", 1999; "Strange Message", 2004), Prose F. Berry Btner (Sat. Stories "and the smell of it - Earth ", 2007; Roman" When the childbirth ", 2009), etc.
Poetry L. 2nd floor. 20 V. Combines loyalty nat. Traditions with openness of Zap.- Europe. Cultural influence: Creativity M. Suleiman (Sat. Daytime Greens, 1968), A. A. Said (Adonis) (Sat. "Poetry Time", 1972), R. S. Al-Huri, known for pseud. Ash-Shaar al-Karavi. In the years of chase Wars arose that Poetry South L. (Creativity M. Farhat, D. Fakhrudedina, I. Lahuda, A. Farhad, W. Al-Hadja, H. Abdallah, M. A. Shamsuddin, etc.). Among Arab. Poets of the stale 20-21 centuries: P. Shaul, A. Vazzan, A. Baydong, Sh. Shahwan, I. Makhlouf, B. Khadzhare, J. Al-Asvad, V. Saad, D. Al-Judge, A. A. Zaid, I. A. Khabash, Yu. Bzi, D. Sakkal, Z. Vakhby.
With con. 19 - Nach. 20 centuries. Lit-Ra L. also develops to Franz. Yaz. Paris were published MN. works of br. Ganem Shukri (Sat. Poets "Flowers and Terni", 1890; Drama in verses "Antar", post. In 1910) and Haniema Khalil (Sat. Pychs "Christos-2", 1899), B. Dagger (Sat-Ki Story "Memories of the East", "ideal and reality", "under the ashes", all in 1903-04), J. Tabet (Sat. Poems "Laughter and sobs", 1907; Roman "Emancittered", 1911) who worked in co-authorship J. Samna and M. Barres (novel "in the country of Sheriff", 1911), F. Khaika, M. Shihi, S. Akly; M. Sursuka drama (Dram "Arab Oath", post. In 1906) and J. Shehada . The largest French-speaking poet L. 1st floor. 20 V. She became S. Food (poetic. SB "Mount of Inspiration", Deputy Ed. - 1934, "Symphony of Light", 1946; Sat. Lyrich. Essay "Son Mountains", 1938; cycle of poems about Mary Magdalene , 1948; the cycle of the poetic. The testers "Miracles of Madonna seven passions", 1949). In the 2nd floor. 20 V. The traditions of French-speaking Lit-Ry L. continued poetry A. Sedid, N. Salama, H. Howey, S. Steet, N. Tuwayni ("Twenty poems of love for Lebanon", 1979, Sat. "Arrested Earth", 1982), Pros V. Huri (Gata) (Sat. Novell "Crites to the Dead Moon", 1979), A. Maaluf (the epic "Crusaders with the eyes of Arabs", 1983; Lion African novels, 1986, "Samarkand", 1988, "Rock Tanya ", 1993," Jewish of Baldassara ", 2000), etc.
Architecture and Fine Arts
Baalbek. Propilenes. 1-3 centuries. n. e. Photo by A. I. Nagaeva
On the territory of L. survived the polynomial. Monuments of an ancient lawsuit. To 5-4 cm ko. e. The remains of massive stone fortifications, the temple of Balat GaBal (early layers) and residential buildings of Bibl (now Jubil), ceramics with comb ornament and schematics. Images of animals. 3-2 mg to n. e. Dating remnants of powerful fortress and temple structures in the Bible [Mountains. The walls, the temples of the Rechew (Kon. 3rd thousand to n. e.), Obeliskov (19 V. BC)] and numerous. Works of the order of Phiking [small plastic, jewelry; Sarcophag Tsar Ahirama (approx. 1000 BC, Bible; Nats. Museum, Beirut)]. Monuments of the 2nd-1th thousand to n. e. Specify links with cultures of ancient Egypt [stone steles and statues from Tira (now Sur) and Sidon (now Side), 13-7 centuries. BC e.], Greece, Babylonia, Assyria (Memorial steles with reliefs and inscriptions in the gorge of a dog river, 7th century. BC), Ancient Iran (Capel Column with Protomi Bulls, Figurines of children from the Eshmun sanctuary near the sides, 2 anthropomorphic Sarcophagi from Sidon; all - marble, 5 c. BC, NC. Museum, Beirut).
In the statement of Rome. Time connected antique and east. Traditions [Temples Complexes, Theaters and Villas in Baalbec and the bibl detected by excavations of the ancient cities of L. L. Numerous. Works of sculpture (stone altars; steles, sarcophagi with reliefs, statues, terracotta plastic) and painting (mosaic "Abduction of Europe" from Bibl, 3 V. N. E., Nats. Museum, Beirut)]. From 4 - beginning 7th centuries, when the territory of L. was part of Byzantium, Christian monasteries, churches, catacombs were preserved in coastal mountainous areas (many with mosaics).
With the inclusion of Christianity in L. in the spread of Islam, the Arab Caliphate and the spread of Islam did not lose its value; The construction of Christian temples continued along with the emergence of Musulm. Buildings. Among the monuments of 7-11 centuries. - Ruins Andzara (fortified commercial city of Omeyadov, 714-715; according to Rome plan. Camps; 2 Palace, Khalifa al-Walid, societies, societies) and a large Baalbeck mosque (based in 7 or 8th century, Restoration - 1998).
In the era of the Crusaders (Kon. 11 - Kon. 13 centuries) built: castles on the coast [Saint-Gilles (1102, on the site of the Arab. Fortress based in 636) in Tripoli; St. Louis (12th century) and the castle (13th century, 17-18 centuries) in the side] and in the south of L. [Bahor (1139, repeatedly destroyed and restored) and Toron in Tibnin (from the con. 12 V. )]; Monasteries (Belmont, Arab. - Deir-Balamend, Male Orthodox, and. 17th century, on the site of the Cistercian Abbey. 12th century, from which the temple of Our Lady was preserved; south of Tripoli) and the Church (John the Baptist in Bible, OK . 1215; St. Foki in Amunic, where the remains of the painting are preserved).
Tripoli. Big mosque. 1294-1314.
Tripoli. Citadel. 1307-08. Photo by A. I. Nagaeva
In the Mamluk era (13 - beginning. 16 centuries) Architecture of fortress structures (castle in Rahaye, 13 V. Tripoli Citadel, 1307-08, included the surviving parts of the Castle of Saint-Gilles) and the cult buildings, often built on the site of fortifications and temples Crusaders (Lobster Mosque in Beirut, 1291, Reconstruction of the 2000s.; A large mosque in Tripoli, 1294-1314), is characterized by merging the traits of Romanesque and CP.-century. Arab. architecture. Mountains Palaces, mosques, madrasas, Sufi monastery-Khanka, Mausoleums, multi-populated societies. Bani Hammama, Khana, covered markets are distinguished small, but express. Monumental forms: The facades are usually lined with alternating rows of light and black stone, cut into rectangular windows and portals with stalactitic arches, ornamental sets, carved panels or cartridges from a relig. inscriptions (Mosque-Madrasa al-Bratcia, 1310; Madrasa Martvia, 1316-26; Hammam An-Nuri, Ok. 1333; Lion tower, con. 15th century, all - in Tripoli). In the decoration of the interiors, wood carving, inlaid from marble, ornamental mosaic panels, painting were widely used.
During the Ottoman Empire, the cult Musulm. Architecture perceives the features of the tour. architecture and becomes more picturesque thanks to the numerous. Domes, different in height and diameter, and slim high minarets, isolated from a stone of different colors. More elegant has become internal. Finishing buildings (color stained glass windows, ornamental carving, etc.). The churches were decorated with mosaics, icons and paintings in the spirit of the post-sanctine lawsuit. According to the testimony of the historian hell-duveuhi, c. Mar-Abda in Bicfaye (1587) painted I. Khasruni (the first reached the name of Lebanon. Artist). In 17-18 centuries. The painters of A. Zahir, N. Tarabulsi, S. Daeão. Palace architecture 19 - Nach. 20 centuries. It is distinguished by light, elegant forms, the use of arcade, loggias, galleries, overwhelmed with details of the decor (Beit Ed Ding Palace, 19th century). Nar. Residence - rectangular 2-storey stone houses with a tiled 4-pitched or flat roof.
Beirut. Star area. Photo by A. I. Nagaeva
After the 1st World War in L., structures in the spirit of "Oriental AR Deco" (Parliament Building, 1931-1933, Arch M. Altunyan et al.; Nats. Museum, 1932-42, Arch. A. S. Nahas et al.; both - in Beirut). Architects F. Trad and A. Tabet work in line with "Sov. Movement "(Hotel" Saint-Georges "in Beirut, 1929-32, not preserved.; Arch. Tabet). After receiving L. independence in architecture, the dominant position occupies International style (International Airport Beirut in Halde, 1948-1954, Arch. A. Lekonta; Adm. Dar-El Syad building in Beirut, 1954, Arch. K. Shaier, et al.; Intern. Exhibition Complex in Tripoli, 1962 -75, arch. O. Siemeer ). With con. 1960s. Appears in style Postmodernism (Cathedral of Our Lady in Harasse, beginning. 1970s, Arch. P. El-Huri). In the 1990s - 2000s. In architecture, L. continues the post of postmodernism (parliamentary complex in Beirut, 1998, Arch. N. Azar), build buildings in line High-teca (Building "Banque Du Liban et d'Outre-Mer", 1996, Beirut, P. El-Huri), regionalism ("Hall of Justice" in Side, 1996, Azar), Mind-breeding (student. Hostel University in the Caslik, 2004-07, Arch. S. EID).
In 19 - Nach. 20 centuries. Monumental and steel painting develops on a relig. And household topics. Among the painters - N. Yu. Shukri, N. Fayad, A. Matar, I. Al-Nerzhar, I. Sarbay, A. Jamal, N. Al-Maadi (also Sculptor), R. Schdidi, D. Food, X . Sirur, X. Salibi. After the 1st World War, the lawsuit in L. was experiencing a strong Franz. influence. In depicting. The statement of 1930-40s. The leading was realistic. Direction [M. Farruh, O. ONSI, S. Zhmail, R. Vekhby, J. Kh. Jubran (known as writer), S. Ballet and others]. In 1950-60s. Impact effect S. Rryalism (A. Rais), cubism , Abstractionism (J. Khalifa, E. Khanaan, R. Sharaf, M. El-Mir, A. Sagir), Primitivism (H. Zogheib). Receives the development of sculpture (Y. Al-Hojek, Yu. Gusub, H. Al-Hajj, M. and A. Basbus, R. Samaan, N. Irani, Z. Khajjiang). Since the 1970s - Nach. 1980s. Policy also develop. Poster, caricature and book illustration (R. and A. Shahal, I. Shamut).
Traditions continue to exist. Types of decorative and applied and nar. Script: Patterned weaving, embroidery, weaving from painted straw, rowdrop, inlay bone and motherboard for metal and wood, etc.
MUZ. The culture of L. unites the traditions of various confessional groups, folklore of the rural population and a different kind of SOCD. music. The cities are dominated by the music. Life Zap. sample. Classic. Arab. music whose basis is Macs , sounds ch. arr. in concerts. Prof. Composers L. at 20 V. Created a concert repertoire based on Zap. Styles. In 1910, the muses are open in Beirut. School - "Dar Al Musika" (from 1925 Nats. School of Music, from 1929 Nats. Cons.). Its founder and director (until 1952) - pianist and composer V. Sabra (from Lebanon. Christians, studied in Paris). T. Sukkar was taught in this school (the author of many-voice essays, in which Arab introduced. Micromechika; Head of the Choir "Echo Cedars"), B. Gelalyan (taught Zap. Music), S. Al-Hello and G. Farah (Both Taught Arab music, including the game on Ude. ), V. Gulmia (author of popular music in the spirit of the mountains. Folklore and Symphony. Works).
Sovr. Mountains Music for which the singing of a soloist is characterized by an instrumental ensemble consisting of zap. and traditions. Arab. Tools, includes several. mixed styles; All of them reached the peak of popularity in the 1960s - 1st floor. 1970s. Nar. The song "Baladi" uses standard Arab. Ladointonation cliché, based on the traditions of Macama; In L. distributed ch. arr. Until 1975, then - among Lebanon. emigrants. Style "Tarab" (or "Fan") - songs in Arab. Style, ch. arr. With love topics, texts - on Lebanon. dialects. T.N. Folklore Style ("Fulkinur") combines elements of the local Lebanon. Folklore, general and western prof. traditions; Songs are performed accompanied by an ensemble, which includes: Buzuk (lute with a long neck), Nag. (longitudinal flute), cubic-shaped drum, harmonic, etc. Tools. The creators of the "folk" style - com by zi that ry and poe you br. Assi and Mansour Rakhbani, the leading performer - Singer Fairow; Dr. Representatives - Composer, Singer and Butterist (performer on the Ude) M. Califa, Fleotist I. Ayub.
During the chase. Wars 1975-90 mn. Lebanon. Musicians emigrated and successfully joined the world music. Culture. Outside L. worked (or continue to work): in France - Pianists A. R. El-Basha and V. Akel, Trubach N. Maluf; In Germany - Butterist (performer on the UDE) and the author of the music in the style of Fusion R. A. Khalil; In the USA - Pianist D. Takiyaddin, pianist and composer V. Hovrani, composer and artist Arab. Music A. D. Racy (prof. California University, Los Angeles); MN. Musicians moved to Egypt.
In con. 20 - NCH. 21 centuries. In L. still strongly influence. music; Unlike most Arab countries. The region continues to develop popular music based on the mixture of local and Western Muses. Elements, including rock. In different mixed zap.-Vost. The styles were composed, except for those named, composers: A. Fuluichan (also worked in the USA), H. Ar-Rumi, T. Al-Basha (also conductor), I. Rakhbani and Z. Rakhbani (also a pianist), K. Fahuri. Among the performers - Conductor S. Sakhhab, Skripach N. A. Murad, Butterist (performer on Buzukka) M. Muhammad. Fame to Arab. The singers and singers received the region - performers of the mountains. Music: F. Bid, M. Ad-Din Bayun (also performer on Buzuk), Yu Taj, I. Rubai, I. Bid, M. Dzhibran, N. Al-Huda, N. Salam, Z. Hamdan, Sabah (J. Fagali; also film actress), V. Az-Safi. Zap. Music is studied since 1965 on the F-Things of Fine Arts Amer. Un-Ta (Beirut), since 1970 - in the Institute of Music Studies (from 1992 Muses. Ft - T) University Saint-Espiri de Caslik (Junia) and in other educational institutions. On the basis of nat. Cons. In 1989, Nats are organized. Symphony. Orchestra (V. Gulmia Conductor) and Nats. Chamber Orchestra, in the repertar of which includes ch. arr. Music. Tradition. Concerts nat. and zap. Music also take place in the Picadilly Theater.
Intern. Annual musical and theater festivals: in Baalbek (from 1955, with breaks), "Beit hell-Dean" (near Beirut, from 1985), Al-Bustan (since 1994, in Beirut and other cities). From 1969 annually (with interruptions) there is a concert in Jeith grotto near Beirut. Multimit is held. Regional annual festivals. In L. toured MN. Zap. Musicians, among them - the city of Karayan, L. Pavarotti, M. L. Rostropovich, E. Fitzgerald, K. Stokhausen.
In nat. Museum, Museum of Fine Arts in Beirut - Music Records and Music Collections. Lebanon tools.
Since ancient times, traditions developed on the territory of L.. Theatrical forms: Mysteries Taziy (south. L.) and the puppet theater of shadows. In 1848, in Beirut in the house M. Nabash, the first performance Arab took place. Theater in imitation of Europe. Samples - "miser" Moliere. The performances in the founded window theater were put on lith. Arab. Language and were understandable only to the secular highly educated viewer. Among the playwrights of the 19th century. - S. al-Bustani, N. Al-Haddad, F. Antoon. In con. 19 - Nach. 20 centuries. The school theater developed, for whom F. H. Tannous (the author of the Relig. And Historic. Dram), S. Tagiyuddin (composed politics. Satira). Amateur groups in Beirut and Tripoli arose from the school theater. MN. Theatrical figures L. received education in Europe. One of the first major directories - Abuad - studied in Paris. In the 1940-50s. In Beirut, its productions of Macbeth and Othello W. Shakespeare were popular. In con. 1950s. The actor-comic shush (H. Aladdin) created in Beirut his own. Troupe (NC. Theater), whose repertoire consisted of recycling Moliere's plays, E. Labish, Ial. Dramatours, etc. In 1960, the director M. A. DebS founded (joints with A. Mulum) in Beirut theatrical studio, where Piesen Shakespeare ("Macbeth" and "Hamlet"), I. V. Goe-oe (Faust "), As well as J. P. Sartra, E. ionesko and others. Moullock headed the theater department at the University of Lebanese.
In 1960-75, the theater in L. was experiencing a period of heyday, but permanent theatrical teams in L. practically did not create. Like in Europe. Antenpuriza, the troupe was going around the famous actor or director and, creating a performance, toured with him around the country. One of the brightest events was the play "In anticipation of Godo" S. Beckett (1962) in the formulation of I. Khoury, who opped to theatrical theory and practice B. Brekh TA . The plays of Beckett and E. Ionessko put the absurdism of absurdism with the aesthetics. Sh. Khoury. The most popular performance of the 1970s. The "curtain" of R. Cabeet (1972), in which dir. M. Naba, relying on folklore motifs, touched upon the acute questions of Nats. Self-consciousness. With the drama of Breht, A. P. Chekhov introduced the audience the head of Lebanon. Dramatic. Theater M. Khattar. In 1965, the first theatrical building was built in Beirut ("Theater de Beirut").
In the years of chase Wars new theatrical troupes (in the OSN. Mobile) arose. In Christian regions. Among the troupe that appeared in the beginning. 1980s: "Theater in a small castle", "Theater of George Fifth" and others in Musulm. The districts were distributed by street ideas for children who gave the wandering troupes "Al-Farada", AS-Sanabil, Chamel Theater, etc. In 1981, Lebanon is educated in Beirut. Folklore Ensemble "Karakalla". Before 1990s. In L. flourished the genre of a lung comedy, which was called "Sov. Varieta "(short sketches, songs and dancing). New rise prof. Theater in L. began in Ser. 1990s. In the beginning. 21 c. New mobile troupes arise, the experimental director's theater develops. The fact is. Troupe 2000s. - Mountains. Theater under the hands. N. Al-Ashgar (Beirut). Al-Madina's theaters are also working in Beirut (since 1994), Montno (since 1997), Shams (since 1999), Berit Theater (since 2001) and others. From 1955, a musical-theater festival is held in Baalbek (with a break in 1975-96). From 1999 in Beirut - International. Festival of theaters of dolls of the countries of the Mediterranean.
Frame from the movie "Caramel". Director N. Labaki. 2007.
The first gaming films on the territory of L. ("Adventures Ilyas Mabruk", 1929; "The Adventures of Abu Abida", 1931) put it by Ital. Dir. J. Pedati. In 1936 Ial. Dir. J. Di Luka released f. "On the ruins of Baalbeck". Nat. Cinematography began to fold after the cancellation in 1943 of the colonial mandate of France, when Livanets A. Al-Aris put the films "Roses Saleswoman" (1943) and the "Princess Star of the Desert" (1946). During the 1950s. The country produced in the OSN. melodramas. The emergence of realistic. Directions in Nats. Cinema is connected with the yield in 1957 f. "Where?" J. Nasra, truthfully told about the problem of the emigration of the Lebans. Since the 1960s The dominant role was played by Egypt. Capital and film chill created in L. commerce. Entertain. Pictures. In 1964 at the state. Participation in Beirut is based on nat. Cinema Center, in 1965 - Mezararabian coordinals. Movie and TV Center, in 1967, opened a film studio, issuing full-length game films. However, HL went out. arr. Films of the United States, Egypt and Zap. Europe. The greater the resonance was caused by the problem of the Middle Eastern conflict and a fratricide confrontation in L. Films "Kafr Kasem" B. Alavia (1975, joints with Syria) and Beirut, Beirut M. Bagdadi (1975). In the 1970s. This topic was developed in sharp journalism. Documentary films "Lebanon in Vorther" (dir. J. Saab) and "Lebanon ... Why?" (dir. J. Shamshun). Challenges. Wars are devoted to the fulfilled drama full-length films "Refuge" (1981) and "Blast" (1983) R. Hajara. Spectaram "Spring Dreams" of H. Shamsa (1988), "Kadus and the Girl of the bus" S. Al-Guseyni (1989), "Who sings Love" V. Az-Saidi (1991) was used. Among the game full-length paintings of the 2000s. Allocated f. "Paper Bird" R. Gahal (2003) about the young Lebanon. A woman traveling to her husband through the Arab-Israeli border and under the influence of seen and experienced in a new evaluating reality survival. To the number of significant creatures. Good luck also refers Lyrich. Comedy "Caramel" N. Labaki (2007), sympathetically told about the difficult fate and everyday worries of Christian Christians. Beirut.
Visa registration in Lebanon
A tourist 90-day visa opens directly by arrival at Beirut International Airport. In other cases, we need a visa that is issued in the embassy. For the transit intersection of the country (48 hours), the visa is not needed.
The applicants for obtaining a visa of Lebanon should take into account the following features of the country visits:
- To women under 40, who decided to visit Lebanon, unaccompaning a spouse, it is recommended to take care of the visa in the embassy in advance and have a hotel reservation or a tourist voucher.
- Spouses, having different surnames, should submit a certificate of marriage registration.
- If the passport will stand a stamp on a visit to Israel or a stamp of the Israeli authorities about the refusal in this, or the souvenirs, things, newspapers with inscriptions in Hebrew will be found in the receipt of the Lebanese visa.
- The presence of a visa allows you to travel almost throughout the country with the exception of some regions in the south and south-east. These zones are the camps of terrorist organizations. Also, under the prohibition of territory, attached to the Lebanese-Israeli border.
How to independently get to Lebanon from Russia
Regular flights Moscow-Beirut are performed daily by Aeroflot. You can use the services of the Lebanese airline Middle East Airlines (Mea) or Air France, which bind to Beirut almost with all the capitals of Europe and the Middle East.
Culture and recreation
Lebanon - the land of the ancient Phoenicians
Lebanon is a small Middle Eastern state that arrives at its most part in the mountainous terrain on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The territory of the country in the East and the North is bordered by Syria, in the south - with Israel. Currently, approximately 4 million people of local residents live here, as well as more than 1 million refugees from Syria.
The country probably received its name from the ancient Jews, since the word "Lebanon" translates from Hebrew as "White Mountains". Mountain ridges with snow-covered vertices in Lebanon are really very much.
On the coast of Lebanon - the subtropical Mediterranean climate with hot and wet summer. In the midst of the summer period, in July, the thermometer column can rise to + 28-30 degrees Celsius, and sometimes higher. In combination with high humidity, such temperatures are transferred to the human body, accustomed to live in other climatic conditions, is quite difficult. However, in the north-east of the country, the climate is arid, the sand storms often happen. In winter, the temperature on the coast is still on the mark + 13c, although in the mountains it goes to the "minus" mark, drops a lot of snow, which lies on some slopes of about six months, which makes Lebanese ski resorts attractive places of recreation for snowboarding lovers, freestyle and skiing .
The nature of Lebanon is picturesque and diverse. From the north to south, the country crosses two mountain range. Western ridge reins along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. This area of the country is drowning in orange groves and banana plantations. But the coastal plain, which, however, is quite mountainous, it takes a narrow strip of the Earth, the width of which ranges from 1 to 10 kilometers. Near the coast of the hills literally immerse in the forests. Syrian Kleon, Alepskaya Pine, Oak, Laurel, Platan and Wild Olive Trees grow on them. In the mountains, juniper and the famous Lebanese cedar, which has become a national symbol of the country grows up. The highest point of the country is Mount Kanenes-AS-Saud (3083 meters).
Interesting fact: In the old days, the ships that went on the waters of the Black and Mediterranean Sea were built mainly from the Lebanese cedar. This tree has become the main building material and for the temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. From him, the sarcophages of the Egyptian pharaohs were built.
Currently, only two cedar groves have been preserved in Lebanon. Now they are under the protection of the state. The oldest of them is the divine cedar grove or Horsh-Arz El-Rab (its area is occupied by 102 hectares) - entered the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Mountain ridge Antilivan stretched along the border with Syria. It is in these places that are ancient karst caves. Some of them are arranged by a person: a multi-colored highlighting of stalactites and stalagmites, such as in Grotty Jate, allows you to achieve an interesting effect - to create the impression of a ghostly fairytale picture. It has an indelible impression on tourists.
Between the two ridges is located the Bekaa Valley, which flows the largest Lebanese River El Litani. The width of the valley varies from 8 to 14 kilometers. But in the northern part of the country, this plain turns into a stone desert, according to which only wind tunnels and herd of goats and sheep are in search of at least some kind of food. Since the time of the ancient Phoenicians, the fertile part of the valley was considered the main resident of the country - people sought to master each suitable plot for farming.
The Fauna of Lebanon can be called a varied with a large stretch, but from large mammals in this country there are deer, hyenas, jackals and even Syrian bears. But some of these species of animals are already listed in the Red Book and are practically not found.
Archaeologists have proven that people in the territory, which today belongs to Lebanon, appeared in approximately the VI millennium BC, and the first cities began to be formed in the III Millennium BC. It was on the Lebanese land that the Mediterranean state of the Phoennaya, famous for its shipbuilders and merchants-Morakhodas, originated, which were first reinforced Africa and founded Carthage.
Interesting fact: The ancient Phoenicians invented the world's first linear alphabet, which gave rise to almost all modern branches of alphabetical writing (with the exception of Japanese kana, Korean letters and some others).
There is a version that the Phoenicians invented the first money in the world - golden talents, as well as the Phoenician letter, which later they borrowed ancient Greeks. They are also attributed to the palm of the championship and in terms of other inventions - glass, soap and purple, which they received by digesting sea mollusks.
In 332 BC, after the seven-month siege and assault, Alexander Macedonsky seized the Phoenician city of Tir, showing wonders of military wisdom and smelts. If before, several centuries, the territory of Lebanon entered the empire of the Ahemenides, then, after the victory of the Macedonian weapons, she entered the Empire of the Great Alexander. In later times, after the collapse of a single state, this diodeochery (imperial region) became the ownership of the Seleucid dynasty.
In the first century BC. Lebanon became part of the Great Armenia Tigran II of the Great, but it lasted a very short period of time, since in 64 BC Pompey Great, in turn, won this territory. So, Lebanon became part of the province of Syria, entering the Roman Empire. From the VII century to the territory of Lebanon, where the Semitic dialects prevailed, Arabic began to penetrate, and with him Muslim religion. This phenomenon is associated with the invasion of the army of the army of lobster in these lands. Despite the victorious procession of Islam, the Christian religion, placed in Lebanon, has also been preserved. What is noteworthy: Christianity managed to survive even within the Muslim states - largely due to the mountain relief.
From 1182 to 1261, crusaders hosted on the Lebanese lands, and the locals concluded a sland of the Roman Catholic Church. As a result of the territory of Lebanon, they were divided between the county of Tripoli and the Jerusalem kingdom of the Crusaders. However, in the XIII century, Egyptian Mamluki expelled the Crusaders. Mamlukov supported the Yuzhnolivan Ismailitis Druz, on the support of which Muslim rulers later relied in the period of Egyptian dominion.
At the beginning of the XVI century, the Egyptian government replaced Turkish - then, as part of the province of Syria, Lebanon and entered the Ottoman Empire, in which he stayed until the beginning of the 20th century. After World War I, Lebanon was separated from Syria and switched to French government.
The country's independence received in the midst of World War II - in 1943, when an agreement was concluded on the state system of Lebanon.
In 1948, Lebanon took part in the first war of the Arab countries with Israel. In 1958, the First Civil War happened in the country, which ended in the same year after the introduction to the country of the American military contingent.
Until the mid-1970s, Lebanon is a prosperous and stable, from a financial point of view, the state. However, in 1975, as a result of religious disagreements, civil war broke out in the country, almost completely extinguishing the economy. Officially, the cross-visitor lasted 15 years, but in fact the situation is more or less stabilized only by 2006.
Modern Lebanon, despite the rather complex military-political situation in general in the Middle East, love to visit travelers.
Lebanon is a multi-confessional state: about 60% of its population are Muslims, 40% of Christians. According to the Constitution of the country, 18 religious currents - Islamic and Christian are officially recognized.
The confessionalism of public administration is constitutionally enshrined in Lebanon: Christian-Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister - Muslim Sunnit, the Speaker of the Parliament - Muslim-Shiit, must become president of the country.
Nevertheless, from a sociological point of view, the current Lebanon is a secular state in which museums, cinemas and theaters are successfully functioning. The most famous theater - "Karakalla" - is located in Beirut. His performances are a kind of symbiosis of the dance traditions of the East and classic ballet schools of Russia and Europe.
Interesting fact: In Lebanon, five summer musical and folklore festivals are held - in Beirut, Beit Ed Dina, dash, Baalbek and Biblos.
Under the protection of UNESCO in Lebanon, there are such ancient cities such as Andzhar, Baalbek, Biblos, Tir, as well as natural reserves - the Sacred Valley (Wadi-Cadisha) and the Divine Cedar Grove (Horsh-Arz El-Rab).
Medical care in Lebanon is at a very modern level. Most hospitals have new equipment installed, qualified doctors work. There are both public and private medical institutions in the country. When contacting private clinics, customer solvency is required.
Approximately 300 days a year on the coast of Lebanon costs sunny weather, which attracts many tourists here. The overall length of equipped and wild beaches is more than 200 kilometers. In Beirut, the beaches in their most wild, but the recreation areas of Junia, where comfortable hotels are built, tourists enjoy much more popular. From Beirut, they are at a distance of 16 kilometers. Biblos beaches are also popular. Before this resort town from Beirut, reach approximately 40 minutes.
Lebanon is a sports country. Here are very popular sports such as football, basketball, swimming and tennis; Winter sports disciplines are successfully developing. Local ski centers enjoy quite large regional popularity. By the way, their appearance is associated with French border guards officers, which in 1935 opened ski schools in the Lebanese land for soldiers who patrolled the border in the mountains.
Interesting fact: The winter tourist season in Lebanon comes from November to April, however, at some ski resorts, he is delayed already before May.
Lebanon is the only country in the region where the snow is delayed for a long time.
Currently, several ski centers operate in the country. Perhaps the most popular of them is the Cedars ski resort. From Beiruta to him can be reached in about two hours. The overall length of the equipped spa tracks is 120 kilometers, and the most popular space for skiing and snowboarding are located at altitudes of 2-3 thousand meters above sea level. Cedars is considered a relatively new resort, since it was built in the early 2000s. This holiday destination has a developed infrastructure - including hotels of various "star". Modern equipment is issued at rental points.
Also quite popular in the country and the other ski resort - MZAAR, still somewhat inferior to the alpine Cedars. Obviously, the tracks of the second ski complex are more for lovers than for professionals, and their total quantity is quite modest. Nevertheless, you can get from Beirut to this ski center you can quickly: the road will take no more than one hour.
It is curious that Lebanon is the birthplace of a number of well-known athletes with a world name - Samira Bannuta, Mohammed Bannuta, Ahmad Hydar, Mohamed Showki.
Lebanese athletes regularly participate in the Olympic Games. Until recently, there were two silver medals in the country's piggy bank (Helsinki-1952 and Munich-1972) and two are bronze (Helsinki-1952 and Moscow-1980).
In Lebanon, although there are free public schools, but, in general, education in the country is paid. The Arab world is highly appreciated by a diploma issued by local universities and average educational institutions. Most citizens, except their native Arabic, are also studying French and English.
The country has five largest universities. The oldest of them is the American University of Beirut, was opened in 1866. Moreover, students from many Middle Eastern countries are studying at Universities of Lebanon.
On average, the "Shopping of Livansky" corresponds to the meaning of this concept in any other country in any other country. In Beirut, where the most famous world brands are presented - Dolce & Gabbana, Prada, Gucci and many others - lovers of such a type of entertainment can feel in their native elements, such as in the same Italy or France.
There are three main shopping areas in Beirut: inexpensive shops and gold markets are in the Armenian quarter in Burj Hama; High-quality clothing and shoes easier to find on Hamra Street, and the area of expensive boutiques is, of course, Varda.
However, gold jewelry can be bought on the old bazaar in Tripoli, but it is better not to do that if there is no desire to risk and run into the fake. A good gift from Lebanon can be a Jesin knife, a sarafand glass or crafts from the Lebanese cedar. Local merchants swear that their products are sharpened from the local wood famous for the whole world. But you don't need to believe for the word, because they often have it simply polish wooden products of obscure origin by cedar oil. It will take time, and the oil will exhale. But the souvenir may become, will continue to please you for a long time.
In traditional Lebanese cuisine, a dominant position is occupied by fresh greens, fruits, vegetables, fish and seafood, olive and sesame oil. Meat dishes are predominantly made of lamb or poultry meat. Cooking the first dishes is not an integral part of the national tradition, but the local cookies learned how to cut the excellent cold and hot snacks - Mesze. The diversity of the forms of this dishes is infinite: it may be light (bread and vegetables), be cooked from meat and seafood (grilled), etc. And for the usual rapid snack, the shawarma will be used - the Lebanese is called "Shaverm". It is worth clarifying that the usual Lebanese meal implies three or four turns of the evokes. Usually, their composition consistently includes vegetables, rice, lamb, beef and fish. Kebab is very popular - chopped meat of a young lamb with spices.
Interesting fact: Lebanese wine although not very widespread in the world, but some connoisseurs of "golden vines" are quite aware of its existence. For example, some connoisseurs highlight the local Château KSARA. The same wine-making house "Ksara" was founded in 1857 by French jesuit monks. This company accounts for about 40% of all wine products in the country.
According to the consensus-opinion of a number of historians, Praodina Lebanese - Finika is home to winemaking. Phoenician wine received fame in the ancient world long to Cypriot and Chios wines.
The capital of Lebanon Beirut is very often called "Paris of the Middle East." By the way, Beirut is rightfully considered the most ancient world capital. The first references to the city belong to the XV century BC.
Many Lebanese cities are worthy of going to visit them. For example, in a thousand-year Baalbek, the construction of the Roman era is superbly preserved - the impressive sizes of the temples of Jupiter, Venus and Bahus, who still amazing the imagination with their fundamentality. History lovers will gladly visit the Castle of the Crusaders, and the Vintage Church, and the Roman Amphitheater of Range in the Old Testament times of Biblos.
Interesting fact: At the time of the first crusade, Biblos was captured by the Crusaders of Ramunda Toulouse, who did not break this vow of peace-loving. Defenders of the Holy Sepulcher betrayed the city of fire and a sword, not paying attention to his great past.
Lebanon is mentioned in the Bible 76 times.
Lebanon at any time of the year opens its doors to tourists. This country, as it is impossible, is suitable for combining historical excursions with Relax Relax - the adoption of solar and sea baths, rapid descents on ski slopes.
Lebanon: country description and difficult history of ancient state
Lebanon has come across a number of civilizations during centuries-old history, which occupied its territory. The attractiveness of Lebanon is the central position between the North, the Arab South, East and the West. It became the main source for the diversity of cultures in the country and at the same time the cause of wars and conflicts over the centuries.
Modern Lebanon is a democratic, republican, multi-confessional state. Most of its population are Arab Muslims and Christians. Unlike most Arab countries, Christians are actively involved in the public and political life of the country. Many residents of the country emigrated. Currently, the number of Lebanese emigrants is twice the number of residents of Lebanon himself.
Briefly about the country
Lebanon is a multi-confessional country, where about 40% of the population belong to the Christian religion. This is the only country of the Arab world in which important government positions occupy Christians under constitutional law. The Lebanese people are divided into 18 recognized denominations. Lebanese scattered around the world as immigrants or immigrants of Lebanese origin. About 87% - 90% of Lebanese live in cities. Of these - more than 1.100,000 inhabitants (1/5 of the country's population) in Capital Beirut.
and its surroundings.
Residents of the country mostly speak in several languages:
In addition, other languages are used, such as: Armenian, Kurdish and Syrian.
French was considered the official language in Lebanon throughout the French period of the Board (1919-1943). It was used in official transactions and procedures along with Arabic. After the independence declaration (1943), the Constitution provided that Arabic is the only official language in Lebanon. Today, the Lebanese speak Arabic, which has its own dialect, originating from the Arabic language with Araraian and Syrian languages, and also use some Turkish and Persian words. Armenian language is widely used among the Lebans of Armenian origin. Syrian and Latin are still used in Christian liturgy.
Lebanon was considered one of the most important banking centers in West Asia. When he reached the peak of prosperity (1955-1970), it became known as the "Switzerland of the East" for the stability of his financial situation. Cultural diversity attracted so many tourists that Beirut became known as the Paris-East. In 1975, the Civil War began and chaos reigned in the country for 15 years.
After the end of the Civil War, many attempts were made to restore the national economy and develop the tourist infrastructure, which was partially managed. Now the country's economy depends on tourism and banking services.
The current Lebanese people are a mixture of different peoples that settled in Lebanon over the centuries. Many Lebanese have Phoenician, Romanian, Turkish and Persian roots. Also present, European roots from the era of the Crusaders and the period of French rule. Livan lives a large number of Syrians and Egyptians, which work mainly in the field of construction and services.
Lebanon is famous for the combination of the innovative and ancient education system, which allows you to create educational institutions from different cultures. This contributes to the formation in different languages, as well as in Arabic.
Lebanese played an important role in the enrichment of Arab and international cultures in the field of science, art, literature, and were pioneers of journalism and media in the Arab world.
National currency - Lebanese Lira (L.L.), however, along with national money, US dollars are eagerly accepted. The exchange rate over the years remains unchanged: for 1 US dollar -1.500 L.L.
- Lebanon is one of the Arab countries in West Asia. Borders with:
- Syria in the north and east of 375 km (233 miles);
- Israel in the south of 79 km (49 miles);
Mediterranean Sea in the west 225 kilometers (140 miles).
There is a dispute between Lebanon and Syria in a small area adjacent to the Golan Heights occupied by Israel, so H. Sheba farm, where both countries claim to the territory.
- The bulk of the territory of Lebanon is the mountain, with the exception of the coastline and the Valley of Becaa. Lebanon is permeated from north to south by two mountain ranges:
- The first - forms the eastern border with Syria. He was mentioned 12 times in the epic of Gilgamesh and 64 times in the Old Testament;
The second - goes to the Mediterranean Sea.
Kurn Al Sauda is the highest mountain in West Asia.
- Rivers that are formed from melting snow in the mountains are scattered throughout Lebanon. The largest rivers are:
Assa. The peculiarity of this river is that it does not fall into the sea, but flowing through Syria to Iraq. Therefore, she got the name "Assa" - which means "goes against the law of nature."
Characteristics of Climate Lebanon
- Lebanon is characterized by the Mediterranean Climate Type:
- On the coast: winter cold and rainy, summer roast, wet;
In the mountains: Winter is cold, snowy. The temperature drops to - 10. In summer, temperate temperature, without moisture.
The frequency of precipitation is high for the regions in the north and east of the country, due to the Western mountain range, which prevents the rain clouds to go further into the depths of the peninsula.
Lebanon is famous for its cedar forests. In the former times of the forest covered the entire territory of the country. However, the number of cedars was constantly reduced, due to the use of wood for centuries and lack of interest in re-landing trees.
The history of Lebanon dates back to the early days of human civilization. Some of the fossil remains indicate the presence of Mediterranean coastal residents from 7,000 BC. (the era of neolithic and copper). They called themselves by the Antelians.
- There are three assumptions of the country's name:
- Luba is a "pleasant smell of forests and trees." In those days, Lebanon's slopes were covered with cedar and pine forests;
- Lanan - "White". Because of white snow, which covers mountain peaks in winter;
Everyone is the "heart of God." Because Lebanon Mountains were a place to worship the ancient gods.
Residents of this east coast of the Mediterranean Sea were Canane. The Greeks called them "Fenvikos", which means purple, since this color was dominated in their clothes. Residents of the Bekaa region were called "AMORU", since they treated the group of Amorous peoples who came from the Arabian Peninsula.
- During the Phoenician period, each city amounted to an independent republic or the kingdom and was famous for the skill of its inhabitants: Tripoli. Saida, Tir and
- famous maritime trade; Zhelie was a rich city and a major religious center. Traded S. Egypt
- between 2686 BC. and 2181 BC. Exported: Cedar Tree, Olive Oil and Wine;
The city of Peritos was famous for his shopping and liturgical centers.
Pharaoh Tutmos III won the eastern coast of the Mediterranean and annexed Phoenician cities. By the end of the XIV century BC. Pharaoh's power began to weaken, giving Lebanon the opportunity to completely free himself from her at the beginning of the XII century BC. e. The Phoenicians remained independent over the next three decades. Then the Assyrians captured the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and enslaved the Phoenicians. Following the Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians came.
After two centuries of the Persian rule, Alexander Great (Macedonian) won the Phoenician coast in 333 BC. The Phoenicians welcomed him as the conqueror of their country. However, the residents of Tira abandoned his request to bring sacrifices in the temple of Malkarat, which led to the destruction of the sea section of the city (which was the island then) after the eight-month siege. After the death of Alexander, the Phoenicians remained under the influence of selevkids.
64 BC e. marked by the death of Pompeii and the end of the domination of Seleucidov. Phoenician cities fell under Roman rule. During this period, the economic, intellectual and cultural dawn of the cities of Phenicia was observed. It was then that in Beirut was built the largest legal school for that period.
In the sixth century, the country survived a number of earthquakes, which destroyed many of the ruins Baalbek and legal school in Beirut, killing 30,000 inhabitants. During this period, Christian Maronites emigrated from Syria to the territory of Lebanon.
Chaos in Lebanon caused by earthquakes, as well as the highest tribute, religious differences and the weakening of Byzantium opened the country to invade Muslims from the Arabian Peninsula. In 636, N.E., Islamic leader Khalid Bin Valid defeated the Byzantine forces and included Lebanon to the Islamic state. In the era of Omeyadov, the Lebanese shores enjoyed safety and prosperity periods.
Abbasids captured the power of Omayjdov in 750. e. They introduced tight taxes that prompted the Lebans to spend many uprisings. Their Board ended with the capture of power by the Fatimides (the first Shiite rulers). After them, crusaders who captured the coast of Lebanon came to the historic arena. Since the French were the basis of crusades, the Maronite-French relations have been established, especially after arriving at the East of the King of France Saint-Luis IX.
- Crusaders left many castles in Lebanon, such as:
- Tripolsky castle;
In 1175, Salah-hell-Dean founded the Aubid state, which united the territories of Egypt, Syria, Iraq and the Arab bay. He defeated the army of the Crusaders in the battle under Hittin (Maaraka Hotyn). In the era of Mamlukov, after the defeat of the Crusaders, the city of Beirut flourished and became one of the most important trading ports of Europe and the Arab world.
In 1516, Sultan Suleiman I took control of the territory of the coastal levant, including the Mountains of Lebanon and other mountain areas of Syria, Palestine. Zabal Liban (Livan Mountain) used some partial independence at the Ottoman Empire during the XVI-XVII centuries. In the mountains of Lebanon, there were constant religious disagreements between druses and maroonites.
- Therefore, the Ottoman rulers divided Lebanon into two parts:
- North gave marconets;
South - Druzam.
However, the situation has not improved and ended with cutting in 1860. As a result, many local residents decided to leave the country. Lebanese migration has spread widely to Latin America, France, Egypt and the United States.
After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the Turks came out of the Levant, and the French were taken by their place. On September 1, 1920, General Henry Guru announced the division of large Syria (which included the territory of Lebanon) into several countries, according to Saens Pico Agreement. Lebanon fell under the dominion of France. On May 23, 1926, the Council of Representatives adopted the Constitution and announced the creation of the Lebanese Republic, the First Republic in the Arab world.
On November 22, 1943, the Lebanese defended their right to independence from France with the support of the British Government of Churchill. All foreign armies were derived from the country in 1946. After independence, Lebanon participated in Arab negotiations, which led to the creation of the League of Arab States in 1945, and also joined the membership in the United Nations.
After five years of independence, Lebanon participated with the rest of the Arab countries in the fight against the creation of the Jewish state in Palestine in 1948. His role was to provide logistical support to Arabic forces. After the victory of the Israeli army, Lebanon signed a cease-fire agreement with Israel, known as a truist in 1949. As a result of the war, about 100,000 Palestinians were moved to the territory of Lebanon and settled in refugee camps.
The Lebanese Civil War in 1975 was the result of an internal conflict between Christians, on the one hand, Palestinians, Muslims - on the other. The conflict has evolved in various forms for 15 years. The war ended with Taif's agreement, which established a sectarian separation of power and reduced the powers of the President of the Republic. Since the end of the war, the reconstruction of Beirut was started by the then Prime Minister Rafik Hariri, returning Lebanon as a tourist attraction for the entire Arab East and the Arabian Peninsula.
Lebanese cuisine Lebanese cuisine is part of the kitchen Shami common throughout Levant (Northern Syrian regions and parts of Iraq). Lebanese cuisine has won international fame (especially its grills and various snacks, known as Mazz) due to the settlement of the Lebanese worldwide.
- Lebanese food is considered one of the best, since wide uses useful health products:
- Olive oil;
- Over the centuries, Lebanese cuisine absorbed various culinary styles, such as:
However, Lebanese love for food added many nuances in dishes, which made the kitchen special. Lebanese cuisine includes a wide selection of second dishes, grills, pies, sweets, jams and snacks.
Sights of the country
Baalbek city is located in the center of the Bekaa Valley. This city attracts tourists every year with its historical monuments of many past epochs. It has archaeological monuments of Roman and Phoenician cultures.
From the Roman period, this city is known as the "City of the Sun". The ancient Arabs called this city with the name of God Baal (combination of Waal words (Lord) and Baka (Bekaa)).
Chile Stone (South Stone)
Sculptural stone in Baalbek 20 meters long and 4 meters wide. The weight of the stone is 1615 tons. It is located on the northeast entrance to Baalbek. This stone is the biggest carved stone in the world.
It is one of the most important tourist and archaeological monuments in the history of the Ancient Roman era.
- The lock consists of several sections:
- Deca: This is an inner courtyard, built of huge stones with a length of about 20 meters and 3 meters wide (known as trilitone stones);
- Al-Rauvak Al-Kadam - a huge gate with two towers covering more dozen columns from granite, as well as stairs and a gallery, surrounded by statues;
- The lobby revolver is an open courtyard, surrounded by six corridors;
- Large area: this is the area with the most important religious monuments;
Altar and Tower: This is a tower that allows pilgrims to make their prayers and see the statues in the depths of the temple.
There are several mosques in the Baalbek castle, including: Jupiter's Temple, Bahus Temple, Ibragim Mosque, Mamluk Tower and others.
Moses Palace One of the unique Lebanese museums from the point of view of the history of construction and content. This palace, located in the city of Bate Al-Dean, was posted itself to one person, thus implemented his children's dream. The rooms of this palace tells about the life of Lebanon's people between the XIX and the beginning of the XX century.
The Palace of Musa was built in the period between 1945-1997. I built it just one person - Moses. When the building was completed, the palace rooms were divided. In some races, the history of the Lebanese people expressed in numbers and photographs: Ottoman era, French. There is a hall of a weapon, the collection of which consists of 16 thousand fragments of various types of weapons of an old sample.
The name of the palace is connected with a beautiful story about the will and determination of a small child named Moses ("Moses, Architect"). The child grew in the poor family and since childhood dreamed of building the palace, so I spent all my free time not to play with peers, but on drawing the future castle. Once Moses was so carried away by drawing at the school lesson, which did not notice the teacher approached him. The teacher snatched sheets, ripped and scattered them, and the boy hit the boy. The teacher told him: "You are expelled from school. Return to the Father and your imaginary palace. " Moses cried, he collected sheets of paper and ran home. The broken drawings, he put in the box, which kept about a quarter of a century, until he reached his dream and did not build the desired palace.
Jeit Grotto Jeit Grotto (Cave, Grotto) is one of the most famous sights of Lebanon. The grotto is located about 20 km north of Beirut, in the valley, known as Wadi Al Kalb.
- The cave consists of two zones:
- Top cave;
The cave of the same is a number of cavities, reefs and lobby. In addition, it is the lobby, facilities and halls climbed by nature. Water, which came from Lebanese Highlands, leaked through limestone rocks, making the cave a fantastic world of domes and forms.
Part of the lower cave was discovered in the 1830s, and her researcher was William Thompson. To visit tourists, the seitis was opened in 1969, after the engineer and the artist Hasan Clink worked over her. The opening ceremony was accompanied by an impressive concert of the French musician Francois Paul.
The cave was nominated for a list of natural miracles, along with the island of Bu Tina (UAE), as well as with the Dead Sea (Israel, Yordan).
Harris (Lady Livan)
The Lebanese monk George Alsgbine suggests that the idea of creating the shrine of the Virgin Mary in Lebanon dates back to 1904. At this time, the church celebrated the anniversary of the Fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of FIR IX, the doctrines of the immaculate conception (December 8, 1854). In his opinion, Christian Maronites: Patriarch Mar Elias Hwuika and Apostolic Nunci in Lebanon and Syria Bishop Carlos Duval, created this religious monument. He perpetuates the doctrine of the immaculate conception and the love of the people of Lebanon to Mary throughout generations.
To build a statue of this size and type, it was necessary to get the Royal Decree on the approval of the Ottoman authorities. Muhafar Pasha Lebanana sent a telegram to Istanbul with a request to approve the construction of the monument and what was the amazement and even a miracle when the answer came after 5 hours.
The cost of construction of the temple and the statue cost 50,000 francs. Money was collected from donations of parishioners. One major donation (16000 francs) was committed by a French woman who wished to remain unknown.
In early 1908, the construction of the temple and the foundation of the statue was completed. On May 3, 1908, the opening ceremony took place at ten o'clock in the morning. He conducted the inaugural ceremony of Monsignor Fredano Giannini. He announced the first Sunday of the month of May by the annual holiday of Our Lady Leiban.
The statue of the Virgin Made in France from Bronze. Her length is eight and a half meters, weight 15 tons. The pedestal is made of a natural stone with a height of twenty meters. Its lowest circle - sixty-four meters, and the highest - twelve meters. As for the rise to its top, then this is a spiral staircase with a bias of a hundred four degrees.
Teleph (cable car)
It was built in 1965 and serves as a high-speed lift from the city of Juni, to the statue of Lady Harissa. The elevation of the telephone is 550 m., Time on the way is 10 minutes. After the first lift, tourists go to the second station, where a small electric bus should deliver them to the top, to the statue of the Virgin Mary. Visitors and believers from around the world flock here.
From the top offers a beautiful view of the city and the bay of Junia. The territory is equipped with cafes, souvenir shops and shops.
Livan's cable car receives visitors every week except Monday.
On the notes of the tourist In summer, tourists attract the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
- In Lebanon, almost the entire coastline is built up with the objects of the tourist infrastructure of varying degrees of comfort:
Large selection of cafes, restaurants with an extensive European and local menu.
In addition, casino and cabaret are provided for European tourists. Tourism in Lebanon flourishes not only in the summer, but also in winter, thanks to the snow that adorns the mountain slopes.
If you are a fan of skiing and want to spend your holiday in Lebanon - the country's ski resorts are waiting for you.
Farius Ayman al-Simman
The region of the Mountain Ridge of Western Lebanon. This area is characterized by snow-covered vertices and slopes Bakmtha in winter, which becomes a magnet for tourists - skiers. The Aerman Although the first ski center in Lebanon, founded by Al-Mazar in 1957.
The cedar resort in Lebanon is one of the most famous ski resorts. The area is located in the north of the country (Western Mountain Range). The area is considered one of the most famous tourist destinations. It is known for the presence of cedar trees, which are symbol of Lebanon.
Mazar ski resort
Located in the village of Kafr Zebne in the area of Kesservan and attracts all lovers of skiing. Located from Beirut at a distance of 44 km.
Located 4 km from Beirut. This area is a unique ski area. Serves as a resting place for tourists and lebans.
Lebanon is a unique country with a centuries-old history. Despite the small amounts in it, a huge number of architectural, natural and historical monuments are concentrated. The guilty and hospitality of local residents, the unique flavor of the country and its picturesque landscape will not leave anyone indifferent. A source:
If you are looking for where is on the map, the state of Lebanon and its capital Beirut will find them in the Middle East. Lebanon is located in the mountainous terrain on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. In the East and the North bordered by Syria, and from the south side with Israel.
Lebanon's population is more than 6 million people. The Republic stands out among the Arab countries with an extraordinary religious diversity. In Lebanon, there is a special political system, the so-called confessionalism, which implies the organization of state authorities in accordance with the division of society to religious communities.
To the Civil War, 1975-1990, Lebanon was a prosperous state, the financial and banking capital of the Arab world with the prevailing shares of the Christian population, for which he received the informal name "Middle Eastern Switzerland". Lebanon is also popular among tourists. After the completion of the war, the reconstruction of the economy began.
Lebanon on the world map
The total area of Lebanon is 10452 km². In size, the country is the 161st in the world. Most of the Lebanon is covered with mountains, except for the Bekaa Valley in the northeast and stretched from the north to the south of a narrow plain area along the seashore. Coastal Lebanon is separated from the eastern regions by mountain chains Lebanon and Anti-Livan. Limestone, iron ore, salt deposits are found in Lebanon. Lebanon is rich in water resources. The Litani River is the main source of water for the southern regions of Lebanon. However, shipping rivers in the country is not.
For Lebanon, the Mediterranean climate is characteristic. In the coastal regions, winter is usually cool, and summer is wet and roast. In the winter in the mountains, the temperature drops below 0 °, the snow is possible. Although the average annual rainfall in Lebanon is much larger than in neighboring countries, a dry climate prevails in the north-east, as the mountains block the flow of wet air from the sea. Sand and dust storms often happen.
In the ancient Lebanon, the forests of the Lebanese cedar took place in a huge amount, which became a symbol of the country. Centes trees cut down without transplanting as the main material in shipbuilding. This led to the fact that by the XX century on the site of the richest forests, only some of the islands of greenery remained.
History of Lebanon. Ancient Lebanese
The emergence of the first settlements on the territory of modern Lebanon refers to the 6th millennium to our era. In the vicinity of Bibl, archaeologists discovered the remains of prehistoric huts and primitive guns. Some household items indicate the existence of the parking lots of the Outolithic tribes of the era of Neolithic, another 8-7 millennium to our era.
Lebanon became the birthplace of the chief of the developed maritime trade state, stretching along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Phoenicians gave the world the first alphabet. Flooring of the Fenika appeared at 1200-800. BC e. In the VI century BC e. Phenicia fell under the dominacy of Persians led by Kyrome Great. In 332 BC e. Alexander Macedonsky made a campaign on the candy, destroying its largest city - a shooting range. With the collapse of the Macedonian Empire, Lebanon entered the kingdom of Seleucidov, and at the end of the I century BC. e. - Roman Empire.
In the period of Arab conquests and the formation of the caliphate in Lebanon penetrates Islam. In the XII century, Lebanon became part of the Jerusalem kingdom of the Crusaders. In 1261, the Crusaders were expelled from Lebanon by Turks-Mamlukov, and Lebanon was located as part of Mamluk Egypt until 1516. In 1517, Sultan Selim I joined this territory to the Ottoman Empire. Emirs of Shehb ruled Lebanon from 1697 to 1842.
The territory of Lebanon as part of a large Syria is located as part of the Ottoman Empire more than 400 years. After Turkey's defeat in the First World War and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the territory of Big Syria was occupied in 1918 by British troops under the command of General Alenbi. Subsequently, by agreement of the SAYAKS-Pico from 1916 between the countries of the Entente, the territory of Syria was transferred to France, and managed in the form of a French mandate from the League of Nations. In 1926, the territory of Lebanon was separated from Syria, and Lebanon became a separate territorial unit managed, however, the administration of the French mandate of Syria.
In 1940, France was occupied by Germany. Already in November, the first elections were held and the government was formed. In 1943, Lebanon officially acquired independence. An unprofitable "national pact" established a rule on which the president of the country should be a Christian Maronite, and the Prime Minister - Muslim Sunnit (Speaker of Parliament - Muslim-Shiite). In 1948, Lebanon took part in the first Arab-Israeli war. After the defeat of the Arab Liberation Army, Lebanon signed an agreement with Israel on the cease-fire. 100 thousand Arab refugees moved to Lebanon.
Since 1956, the contradictions between Christians and Muslims began to increase in Lebanon, which took place in May 1958 to the Civil War. To keep power in the country, President Camille Shamun appealed for military assistance to the United States. American troops were in the country from July to October to the full normalization of the situation.
Civil War in Lebanon
In 1975, the second civil war broke out in Levo-Christian forces and left-Muslim militia, who were supported by Palestinian militants in Lebanon. The war lasted for 15 years, destroying the once prosperous economy of the country, and claimed more than 150 thousand inhabitants. The bloodshed ceased in 1990 by the signing of Taif agreements.
In 1976, at the request of the then government, Syrian troops entered Lebanon. Syrian occupation (eng.) Russian. It lasts until 2005, despite the official requirements of Lebanon's presidents on the conclusion of the Syrian troops, since 1983.
The short period of relative peace was interrupted by a government crisis, provoked by the murder of an ex-premier of the country of Rafa Hariri, who followed the conclusion from the country of Syrian troops and the Israeli-Lebanese conflict in 2006.
In 2007, the situation in Lebanon was complicated by the crisis around the Lahode Al-Barid camp.