How to measure the density of electrolyte and charge the battery - DRIVE2

Measuring the electrolyte density in combination with a voltage measurement under load and without allowing you to quickly set the cause of the malfunction in the battery. At low density - it can be a defect in any cell, a deep discharge or breaking the chain inside the battery. The density is measured by a special device - a carometer (densimeter).

Measuring the electrolyte density in combination with a voltage measurement under load and without allowing you to quickly set the cause of the malfunction in the battery. At low density - it can be a defect in any cell, a deep discharge or breaking the chain inside the battery. The density is measured by a special device - a carometer (densimeter).

As an electrolyte in batteries, a solution of sulfuric acid is used, the density of which is measured in g / cm3. Basically, the density depends on the concentration of sulfuric acid solution - the larger the concentration of the solution, the greater the density. However, it also depends on the temperature of the solution and on the degree of charge of the battery - with a discharge, part of the sulfuric acid "goes" in the plate, the density decreases.

Therefore, the density measurement is made at 25 ° C and a fully charged battery. The electrolyte density in the new fully charged battery should be 1.28 ± 0.01 g / cm3 for the middle strip. But it may vary depending on the climatic zone.

Linearly decline, as the battery is discharged, it is 1.20 ± 0.01 g / cm3 in batteries, the degree of charges of which decreased to 50%. In a fully discharged battery, the electrolyte density is 1.10 ± 0.01 g / cm3.

If the density value in all banks of the battery is equally equally (± 0.01 g / cm3), this indicates the degree of charges of the battery and the absence of internal circuits. If there is an internal short circuit, the electrolyte density in the defective cell will be significantly lower (at 0.10-0.15 g / cm3) than in the rest. Low density in one of the cells indicates the presence of a defect in it (a short circuit between the plates in the block). Equally low density in all cells is associated with a deep discharge of the entire battery, its sulfate or obsolescence. All the batteries are poured during charge and work is losing part of the water. This reduces the level of fluid over the plates and the acid concentration in the electrolyte increases. The operation of the battery with a low electrolyte adversely affects the battery life. Therefore, before checking the density of the electrolyte, it is necessary to check its level in the battery banks. It is considered to be normal electrolyte level by 10-15 mm above the upper edge of the plates (separators).

There are three main types of batteries:

Minor (SB / SB) - This is an ordinary "classic" lead battery with additives in antimony plates, they are subject to the greatest self-discharge and watering of water from the electrolyte solution, but are not afraid of deep discharges, they are easy to charge even at low electrolyte density. Calcium (CA / CA) - Plates are doped with calcium, they practically do not require tracking the level and density of electrolyte, vibration resistant, insured from a long reloading to 14.8 V, tolerate the voltage drops in the on-board network, have corrosion resistance, have a low self-dealer, longer service life. However, they have one drawback - they are unstable to deep discharges. The fact is that with a long-term discharge, their positive plates are coated with calcium sulfate blocking electrochemical reactions. This process, in contrast to the formation of lead sulfate in low-tech batteries, will irrelevant. If you discharge the calcium battery below 11.5 V, it will no longer restore the original container, when discharge below 10.8 V will lose up to 50% of its capacity. Two or three such discharge - and the battery will have to throw away. Also, due to the fact that the plates in such batteries are packed in dense packets, the electrolyte density is uneven - heavier sulfuric acid accumulates at the bottom of the cans, and over the plates turns out to be more "light" electrolyte. Because of this, the area meter will show inadequately low density with normal charges. These batteries are well suited to those who drive a lot over long distances, who needs vibration-resistant batteries, well carrying constant recharging on the way. Hybrid (SB / CA) - are the golden middle. They are pretty racks to deep discharge, while significantly less susceptible to booze and self-discharge compared to low-tech.

On the example of a calcium battery with a capacity of 60 a · h, we will try to find out the electrolyte density and its serviceability. To begin with, check the voltage at the battery terminals by a multimeter to find out the degree of its charge. Such a check is carried out 6-8 hours after turning off the engine or disconnect the charger. In our case, the car stood about 4 days under the alarm - the voltage is 12 V, which tells us that the battery is almost completely discharged.

Now check the electrolyte density in two banks - it is 1.23 g / cm3 at an ambient temperature of 0 ° C, so we will make a correction in the testimony of the area, bringing them to 25 ° C: 1.23-0.02 = 1.21 g / cm3 - it also tells us The fact that the battery requires urgent recharging.

Remove the battery and transfer to the warm room for recharging.

For calcium batteries, the old "grandfathers" charging methods used for minor jams with a charge / discharge control cycle and a "boiling", as well as ineffective some automatic chargers are uncomplicable. In most such devices, a combined charging method is used in most such devices. Charging process The current is reduced over time, and the voltage, on the contrary, increases. This is explained by the fact that the EMF of the battery is directed precisely to the voltage, respectively, when it is increased, it is necessary to increase the voltage. But the current is reduced due to the increasing resistance of the battery. For modern batteries, the initial installation charge of a current of 5% of the rated capacity with a voltage of 14.4 V and the cost of charging is no less than a day, however, an increase in charge to 10% is allowed during emergency charging. till 12 o'clock. Permissible short-term voltage increase to 16.5 V at the end of the charging cycle. Battery is considered to be fully charged when the current and voltage during charge are saved unchanged for 1-2 hours. The current should fall almost to zero, and the incoming voltage can rise to 16.5 V, depending on the device. If you often start the engine, moving into small distances, and the car is idle for a long time without movement, then for such a battery you need a monthly scheduled battery charging Specialized charger suitable for calcium batteries.

After the electrolyte warms up to 20-25 ° C again, tension voltage and density. Now the multimeter shows the voltage of 12.45 V, and the density in the banks from 1.22 to 1.24 g / cm3, which still indicates the baptine subwoofer.

We leave the caps of the cans with a partition to the exit of the resulting gases during charging. Connect the charger connectors to the battery terminals and turn on the network. Install the charging current switch according to the rule. Since in our case, the battery has a capacity of 60 a · h, then we set the switch to position 6 A and leave to charge at least 10 hours.

We check the charging voltage on the terminals - it is 14.9 in, which is slightly greater than the norm at 14.4 B, but not essential. In our case, the automation of the device itself adjusts the voltage and current strength depending on the state of the battery.

After 10 hours, the arrow of the charger's ammeter dropped to 0.5 A. The battery adopted the main container.

Remove the connectors and wait from half an hour to 2-hours to balance the density and voltage on the terminals. And measure: shows 13.2 V and density 1.24 g / cm3.

As we see, the density has grown a bit, but still does not reach the norm in 1.27-1.29 g / cm3. It may have occurred sulfate plates, so we will bring the charging time to 24 hours and measure the parameters again. Since we have an automatic charger, then the overexpasses are not scary to us and even useful. So, it passed 24 hours, the arrow of the ammeter dropped even lower to 0.25 A and no longer changes. The charging current voltage rose to 15.1 B, the density in the battery cells increased and is 1.24-1.26 g / cm3, which is lower than the calculated one. But, since in such batteries, the density is uneven and inside the plates blocks above, we will take it as normal.

Moreover, the battery is quite old and already had several discharges. The voltage on the terminals is the same 13.2 in that after the 10-hour cycle, which means the battery is fully charged.

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How to measure the density of electrolyte in the battery?

Checking the electrolyte density in the battery is a guarantee of long and reliable battery life. Conducting regular measurements, the driver cares not only about the reliability of his car, but also the state of his wallet.

If the machine is installed on the machine of the powerful type of service, equipped with unscrewing traffic jams, the motorist may at any time check the electrolyte density in the battery. Periodic measurements allow you to control the performance of the battery and maintain it in a normal technical condition. Hence the task of this publication is to tell about the measurement procedure and methods for adjusting the density.

Conditions for measuring

An index of "health" of acid-lead batteries is the electrolyte density, measured in grams per cubic centimeter (g / cm3). The latter is a solution of desalted (distilled) water with concentrated sulfuric acid. When the power source gives the energy of the car on-board network, this parameter decreases, in the process of charging and recovery - increases.

Thanks to the described electrolytic fluid, the technical condition of the battery served can be monitored. When in one of the sections (in the spacious cans), the density of the solution remains low, despite long-term recharging, the question of the performance of the battery and the need to replace it. The excess of the norm indicates the evaporation of water from the electrolyte due to constant boiling - the liquid becomes denser.

Reference. In the process of boiling electrolyte, only water evaporates, sulfuric acid remains in solution, but its concentration increases. Water steam comes out through a special valve.

Density measurement is performed under certain conditions:

  • The temperature of the electrolytic fluid is in the range of 20-22 ° C;
  • The power supply must be fully charged;
  • Environmental temperature - 20-25 ° C.

If the conditions listed, the normal indicator for all cans of a serviceable battery will be 1.27-1.29 g / cm3, the minimum allowable is 1.25 g / cm3. If you do not withstand the specified requirements and measure the density of the electrolyte at a lower temperature or on the discharged battery, the results will not affect the real picture. The obtained values ​​will be noticeably below the norm.

Preparation for verification

To achieve the most accurate measurement results, perform a number of preparatory actions:

  1. Clean the surface of the housing from dust and dirt where traffic jams are located. The task is to avoid garbage from entering after unscrewing the covers.
  2. Charge the battery to the maximum.
  3. In the cold period of the year, the battery will have to be removed from the car, to make a warm place and give the body to warm to room temperature.
  4. Before recharging, remove the plugs and make sure that the plates of each section are completely immersed in an acidic solution. If necessary, draw distilled water and exercises.

The optimal level of electrolyte over plates is 15 mm, minimal - 1 cm. Check easy: Lower a thin glass tube into the well, close your finger from the other end and pull out. The height of the fluid pillar in the tube will show a real level over the banks.

From the tools you will need a special device for measuring the density - aireometer. It is a glass flask with a pear to suck liquid, a transparent float with a digital scale is placed inside. The simple device acts according to the law of Archimedes - the denser the solution, the stronger it pushes the immersed body.

Reference. Some non-maintainable power supplies are equipped with a plastic eye that allows you to observe the condition of the fluid. Carefully dismantling this item, you will receive access to at least one battery section.

Before measurements, set the power supply to a flat surface or fasten the car bracket. Remove all covers - because the sections are separated by the deaf walls and are not communicated to each other, it will be necessary to measure in each well separately. Correctly check the density of the acid solution will help the range of the range - most of the manufacturers put on it the minimum and maximum mark.

How to measure?

The process of measuring complexity does not represent and is performed in the following order:

  1. Lower the tip in the first outdoor well, squeeze the rubber pear and pull the electrolyte inside the flasks.
  2. Holding the range vertically and without removing from the hole, achieve that the float does not touch the walls of the flask.
  3. Remember the readings and squeeze the acid solution back to the battery.
  4. Operation Repeat on the remaining banks.

Council. Keep the wind at hand to wipe the tip from the electrolyte after removing from the next well. Use rubber gloves - liquid is aggressive and able to dry the skin when hitting.

When measuring the electrolyte density in the battery, write the readings for each section. To free your hands, neatly postpone the range on the rag. At the end of measurements, it's pretty rinse the glass details of the device with flowing water and proceed to the analysis of the results.

The indicator is above normal

If in one or several banks the electrolyte turned out to be more densely, there is a reason to check the health of the voltage regulator and the electric generator. What happens in the battery: the concentration of acid in solution increases due to lack of water, which evaporates due to boiling. So, there is a so-called recharge - the voltage on the terminals of the battery is too large.

Restore the required density of the electrolyte is quite simple - it is necessary to add distilled water to the desired sections using the instruction:

  1. Measure the electrolyte level in the bank. If it turned out to be insufficient, draw the desired amount of water and repeat the density measurement.
  2. In the case when the fluid level corresponds to the norm, it is impossible to add distillate. Taking advantage of the rush of the area, dump part of the solution and drain it into the glass closing container.
  3. Pulling portions of clean water and electrolyte, achieve the optimal acid concentration in the solution - 1.27 g / cm3.

After restoring the normal density in all banks, the battery is recommended to additionally charge low current - up to 3 amps.

Reduced density of solution

If the test of the areometer revealed a low concentration of acid in one section, the battery will have to be observed. It is likely that it occurred between the plates and the service life of the power supply is exhausted. Option Second - sulfate plates arising from the deep discharge or insufficient charging voltage by car.

Make an electrolytic liquid with a dense you can three proven methods:

  • evaporation of excess water by long-term charging and slow boiling;
  • substitution of a part of the acid solution is more concentrated;
  • Adding sulfuric acid.

Note. There is a way to fully replace the liquid, which is washing the battery. Do not use it without extreme need - in the process of emptying, lead crumbs, located at the bottom of the battery, can get between the plates and arrange a closure leading to the destruction of the banks and the unsuitability of the power supply to further operation.

To implement the first method, you will need a charger, whose current is adjusted manually. The procedure looks like this:

  1. Determine the charging current by taking 3% of the initial battery capacity. Example: 60 a * h battery need to be charged with current strength of 60 x 0.03 = 1.8 A.
  2. Put the autonomous power supply to charging and wait for the appearance of bubbles.
  3. Adjust the charge current and, as the water evaporates, measure the density. When it reaches the norm, turn off the "Charger".

If in the boiling process, the fluid level has decreased strongly, it will have to buy a finished electrolyte of a regulatory density of 1.27 g / cm3 and add the desired amount into banks.

The substitution of the acidic solution is made by analogy with the plot of distilled water. The liquid is satisfied from the well of a pear, a denser solution bought in the store is poured into its place. There are electrolytes on sale with indicators 1.34-1.41 g / cm3. Then the density check is made, if necessary - adjustment and complete battery charging.

The difficulty of the third version lies in the absence of a solution of sulfuric acid of high concentration - to find and buy it almost impossible. If you managed to get the specified chemical, add it to the cans with small portions, literally 1 cm3, using a syringe. Act carefully and use the means of individual protection - sulfuric acid is very aggressive.



A source: https://autocainik.ru/kak-proverit-plotnost-elektrolita.html

What should be the electrolyte density in the battery

Checking the electrolyte density in the battery is a guarantee of long and reliable battery life. Conducting regular measurements, the driver cares not only about the reliability of his car, but also the state of his wallet.

Hello everyone, dear readers, today I will tell you which electrolyte density in the battery should be. The electrolyte is the main component of the battery, the accumulation and detection of the charge battery depends on its density.

Low concentration does not allow the battery normally to charge, and the discharge is on the contrary takes too fast. At low density, the car is badly started in the morning and may not start at all, stopping somewhere in the field.

An unpleasant moment is not true? To avoid it, we will understand which concentration should be and how to raise it.

Causes and consequences

Why does the electrolyte density fall? It decreases as a result of evaporation from the battery sections. Most of all this happens when it is boiling when recharging. Gradually evaporates the electrolyte and water naturally through drainage holes. There are those in the covers of the cans of the battery, so that it is not broken by an excess of gas or vapor.

Many machine owners know about the need to attach water in terms of batteries. But that is what it is necessary to add and electrolyte when its concentration is low, not everyone knows. Partly acid is evaporated with water, partially decomposes, reacting with the substance of the acb plates.

Of course, this happens not quickly, so it does not make sense to check the electrolyte every day. But the monthly check, for the battery serviced, it will not be superfluous.

Especially since checking the case is fast and not at all difficult. To check, you only need to remove the battery. Unscrew the plugs and check the range all banks. After you spin the corks back, and return the battery to the place. It will take no more than 10 minutes, even if everyone does not rush.

What does irresponsibility lead to

When the driver constantly fills in the level of only water in the battery, the normal electrolyte density drops, in winter such a battery just breaks ice. Water in it is greater than acid, it means when the temperature decreases, it will go into ice. And the ice, as it is known to be expanding, here is the rupture of the battery

In the summer, such a battery is quickly discharged, despite the serviceable generator and constant stationary recharging. With cooling, at a temperature near zero, the machine will not start. Since the density decreases and from a decrease in temperature. The charge level drops automatically.

What a density is needed

The concept of summer and winter density is relative, maintaining the desired concentration is necessary in winter and summer. In areas with a colder climate, the density must be slightly higher, but still within certain limits. Systematic verification helps the concentration. Here is a graph of density and temperatures that will help you to navigate whether to increase the density of the electrolyte in your battery.

From the graph, it can be seen that even at a relatively normal density in the summer, with the onset of cold, there will still be problems. If the electrolyte in the battery lounted or blackened, it is better to replace it completely, adjusting the density during the replacement process. How to do it right now.

We increase density

Let's start with the fact that this is necessary:

  • Areometer - Device Measurement Device.
  • Rubber pear.
  • Measured flask or glass.
  • Capacity where to merge electrolyte.
  • Bottle with electrolyte for batteries.
  • Bottle of distillate.

Safety technique

Safety also in the first place, you do not want to stay blind? I don't want this for sure. Therefore, work in dense rubber gloves, to protect your eyes, purchase special protective glasses closed from all sides.

If you have to breed the electrolyte with your own hands, then remember: first the water is poured into the vessel, and then the acid is gradually agitated. If you do vice versa, there is an instant heating of fluid and boiling. The vessel can burst, and then accurately get burns. Do you not need it?

If you fully change the electrolyte, you need to merge an old solution from the battery. It is forbidden to severely tilt or turn the battery of the ACB. This can lead to a shower of the material of the plates and the closure of them. Then the battery can be thrown away.

Density measurements are performed at a temperature of 20 degrees, or slightly higher. When frost on the street, the battery needs to be brought into the heated room. Give her to stand and warm up. Note that the stronger the battery is discharged, the lower its electrolyte concentration. Therefore, before measurements it will be necessary to charge the battery per maximum.

How to raise density in the wrong battery, I will not consider it, it is better to just pass it on lead. All manipulations with such a battery you will do on your own fear and risk, because its design does not allow maintenance. If you like the risk and tips of "Crazy", I will not help you, but I still do not advise you.

Capacity for old electrolyte is better to take a glass or rubber. To pour it on the ground or in the pond is prohibited categorically. The sewer is also not recommended. It is better to pass on the disposal, in order to avoid trouble than to dispose of himself, especially since now it's easy. On the Internet there are many firms that are engaged in this.

Battery maintenance

The process of increasing density will explain on an example of acid battery, as more common. Indicators for alkaline type will differ from those of those with me.

The density for the electrolyte is given in grams per cubic centimeter (g / cm3). It is measured by the range, alternately in all banks. Permissible density 1.25-1.29.Figal variation between measurements in 0.01 banks. How to align the density level in banks? Of course not water.

When the indicator is 1.20 or lower, then it is necessary to increase the concentration of electrolyte. The added electrolyte must be with a density of 1.27.

Act as follows:

  • At first, with the help of rubber pear, pump out the old electrolyte from one bank, as much as possible, and merge into a measuring cup to measure its quantity.
  • After that, pour into the same bank a new electrolyte, only ½ of the dumped volume.
  • Now you need to shake the battery, without turning, and not tilting the old electrolyte to make a new one.
  • Then again measure the density, if it is not enough, tighten the second half of the frauding volume.
  • So you do alternately with all the banks until you get the desired density.
  • How to increase density if indicators below 1.18? It is recommended to top up no electrolyte, but the acid accumulator according to the scheme described above. Until we get the desired concentration. Excess density is not desirable, the battery plates will be faster and its resource will decrease.
  • After reaching the desired concentration, charging the battery.
  • After charging, the concentration is again measured and aligned with a distillate or electrolyte.

In general, how to increase the density of the electrolyte you now know, work is painstaking. But the battery works perfectly well during the year, and maybe longer, if you avoid boiling and closures. If the plates crumble at least one bank, then only the replacement of the battery will help.

Thanks to everyone, subscribe to updates and share with friends, there will be many more informative. See you.

A source: https://mojcar.ru/ustrojstva-avtomobilya/ehlektrooborudovanie/kak-izmerit-plotnost-elektrolita-v-akkumulyatore-i-ego-norma.html

How to measure the battery electrolyte density? 2 methods of verification and 5 useful tips

Checking the electrolyte density in the battery is a guarantee of long and reliable battery life. Conducting regular measurements, the driver cares not only about the reliability of his car, but also the state of his wallet.

The car with a bad battery is not a reliable vehicle. Experienced drivers know what the "left" battery is, and to which troubles, this eventually leads. In order not to happen unpleasant surprises on the road, the battery needs to be correctly and on time - including to know and how to independently check the battery density.

Battery malfunctions

Most drivers are a sign of a discriminative starter or shit, and even silence at all under the hood of the car during the engine startup. This unpleasant moment is associated with the following faults:

  1. Malfunction of the wiring of the car. Perhaps somewhere disappeared, most often this is due to the partial absence of "mass".
  2. Malfunction of the retractor starter relay.
  3. Starter bus wear worst.
  4. Malfunction of starter windings.
  5. Low voltage in the chain due to the discharged battery.

The last reason is usually the most likely. The most logical move will be the check of the electrolyte density in the battery. From what it depends:

  1. From the climatic zone.
  2. From the time of year.

In order to correctly check the density of the electrolyte in the battery, you need to know its value and have a device called an areaometer.

Find out the right density simply - there are special norms. The average of their indicator is 1.24 - 1.29 kg / dm 3. more accurately:

  • Cold regions - 1.27 - 1, 29 g / dm 3, in summer and winter;
  • The middle strip - 1.25 - 1, 27 g / dm 3;
  • Warm areas - 1.23 - 1, 25 g / dm 3.

It should be at least once every three months to check the battery density. Even a small deviation from the norm requires immediate dosage of the battery.

The indicators need to be closely monitored - so that the AKB worked as long as possible and did not let the owner in the most responsible moment. Especially she "does not forgive" the negotiable relationship in the winter. The fact is that its container is lost in the cold, and sometimes even one unsuccessful engine start leads to the discharge of the battery.

Having the simplest device, check the battery density at home does not represent much difficulty.

Density - density, but also at the level of electrolyte, it is necessary to monitor not with less attention, especially in summer, when the battery rolls more intensively.

There are a lot of opinions regarding the level of electrolyte in the battery:

  1. Some believe that it is enough to cover the grids of separators with this liquid.
  2. Others believe that the greater the level of electrolyte, the better.
  3. Third at all do not look at the battery corks - until the very moment when it stops turning the starter, which often causes a genuine surprise in such mountain owners.

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There are batteries that have a label on the housing indicating the level of electrolyte. It is not very convenient to use it, and there is no hope for accurate indicators. Here will help the proven "Dedovsky" method: a glass tube with an outer diameter of 5 - 6 mm.

At its body, in the lower part, risks should be applied, indicating the correct level of electrolyte (according to the battery passport data). The tube is lowered into each bank alternately, until it stops into the separator grid. Then the top side of the tube is stuck with your finger, and the device is removed from the can, without releasing the finger.

The fluid will remain in the tube, and its exact level will be visible.

If the level is low, it should be gradually pouring distilled water into the can, producing after each topping check. If the level is too high, which is also not the right indicator, then with the help of a steamometer, the excess liquid is pumped up. This method is the most reliable.

The need for charger

This very necessary device for the content of the battery is in good condition, it must have every car owner. With this device, you can always reflect the battery, without resorting to the service of a hundred or local "craftsmen."

Having the right appliance with an ammeter, the driver will greatly do it. Battery Charging Procedure:

  1. You need to connect the charger to the battery.
  2. Turn on the device.
  3. Install charging current. Its value must correspond to ten percent of the battery capacity. For example: if the battery capacity is 60 A / h, then the current must be 6 amps, 63 are 6, 3 cars.

Charging time directly depends on the degree of discharge, which is determined by checking the battery density by the range. The scale indicates the discharge percentage. For example, the battery is discharged by 50% and has a passport capacity of 50 A / h. It follows from this that you need to reflect the missing 25 A / h. If you charge the battery into two amps, then it will be necessary to twelve and a half hours, and if the current indicator is four amperes - six hours 15 minutes. etc.

The principle is simple and understandable if it were not for one "but": each Akb has its own unique "nonors", especially when it is not new. She takes charging differently: faster or slower.

Pulling fluid

Many "light heads" are hotly advised in case of severe battery discharge to top up with sulfuric acid, which is unacceptable. Acid is not immediately mixed with the remaining liquid, and for this you need to charge the battery. In the meantime, the aggressive fluid will intensively destroy the plate, "eating" at the same time and the active mass - powder applied to them.

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If you add the electrolyte, then the consequences will not be as deplorable, but such a liquid will also badly affect the state of the battery.

Only water is recommended. Exceptions are those cases when it is necessary to change the entire electrolyte, since the available in the battery is no longer charging because of the extremely low density.

If the density is too large, you need to pump off the range of liquid, and then add distilled water. Next, charging with a small current, not forgetting about periodic control of electrolyte density.

If the electrolyte is replaced, you need to prepare a new one. For proper preparation in a glass or acid-resistant plastic container, distilled water is first poured, and then, thin jet, acid.

By adding acid with small portions, you need to often check the density of the electrolyte, bringing it to the desired value, depending on the region of living and the season.

Output

Checking the electrolyte density in the battery is a guarantee of long and reliable battery life. Conducting regular measurements, the driver cares not only about the reliability of his car, but also the state of his wallet.

A source: https://auto-gl.ru/kak-pravil-no-izmerit-plotnost-ebektrolita-akkumulyatora-2-sposoba-proverki-i-5-poleznyh-sovetov/

Instructions for checking density and electrolyte levels in batteries

You can check the battery density using a steamer or multimeter by analyzing the voltage working value. Before diagnostics, the user must make sure the battery case defects that could lead to fluid leakage.

Before at home, determine the density with the help of a special device, you need to keep in mind that:

  1. Battery (AKB) Auto is checked using glasses to protect eyes and rubber gloves. The electrolyte solution is an aggressive acid that causes burns when hitting the body.
  2. The battery density level of the machine must be measured after visual verification of the device.
  3. Cleaning battery terminals from oxidation and contaminants. It is necessary to take advantage of a special iron brush or fine-grained emery paper.
  4. Before noting the value of the liquid density in the automotive battery, you need to make sure that the electrolyte in banks must be taken. If the volume of the substance is reduced, it will be necessary to add distilled water to the device.
  5. If necessary, disassemble the battery. Terminals are disconnected from the device and disassembling the locking plate.
  6. Before disconnecting the battery, the ignition system is deactivated in the car, the operation of electrical equipment and appliances is turned off.
  7. The battery is wiped with a wet and clean cloth to prevent dust from getting into jars with electrolyte.

how to remove the battery from the car

The Channel "Battery" in his video told in detail about the nuances of dismantling the battery from the car and disconnect this device.

What and how to check the density of electrolyte in the battery

Check the level of electrolyte in the working solution, in addition to the areaometer and the multimeter, can be both a homemade device.

A special device for measuring density (rangeometer) is a conventional glass tube, the upper part of which is ejected and has a scale with divisions. The lower part of the tube is wide in it. It is fraction or mercury, which is picked up a strictly defined amount during the calibration of the areaometer. In auto shops, such a device is sold in a set with rubber "pear" for the fence of electrolyte and a measurable flask in which the range itself is located.

The principle of the operation of the device is based on the law of Archimedes, and the density of the electrolyte is determined by the depression of the hydrometer (the volume of the liquid displaced by it), and the weight of the device.

Electrolyte measurement range

Before checking the level of electrolyte in a car battery, you need to consider the following rules:

  • The battery must be exhibited on a flat surface;
  • The temperature of the battery should be about 20-25 degrees of heat;
  • Measurement of the density level is not made in one, but in all banks;
  • Checking the working size is carried out no earlier than ten hours from the last trip or three hours after recharging;
  • The battery must be charged.

Measuring the range

Read more about how to measure the level of density to use the range:

  1. All banks are unscrewed on the disabled battery.
  2. A stereometer is inserted into one of the cans, a pear is located on the other end, the fluid is made with it. It in the device should be so much so that its float is freely dangling in the tank.
  3. The density level is determined in accordance with the testimony on the tester scale. The options received are recorded.
  4. Diagnostics of the density parameter is repeated for each bank. All parameters obtained are mapped to the normalized values ​​specified in the table.

The density of the battery is recommended to check no less often than every 15-20 thousand mileage kilometers.

Photo gallery: diagnostics of electrolyte level and density in banks

Fence of fluid from cans in a market level and density check

Table: Amendment to the testimony of the area

Temperature of the working fluid when measuring its density, ºС Amendment to the testimony obtained during testing by the range, g / cm3
From -55 to -41 -0.05
From -40 to -26 -0.04
From -25 to -11 -0.03
From -10 to +4 -0.02
From +5 to +19 -0.01
From +20 to +30 0.00.
From +31 to +45 +0.01
From +46 to +60 +0.02

How to check the car battery multimeter

Step-by-step instruction that will allow you to correctly measure and find out the battery density, it looks like this:

  1. The meter is assembled. To do this, the wires with crocodiles are connected to the multimeter housing. The tester itself is translated into the "Voltmeter" mode.
  2. The rotary switch on the device is translated into 20 V. As a result, the tester will show any parameters below this threshold.
  3. Then the cable is connected to the terminal outputs of the battery - the black contact goes to the negative terminal, red - on a positive one. If the colors of the wires are the same, then you should check the labeling directly on the multimeter housing. On contacts where cables come out of the tester, there must be signs "-" and "+".
  4. The voltage parameter is monitored and the data obtained is compared with normalized. If the battery is fully charged, the working parameter will be 12.7 volts, respectively, charging the device will not need. In the event that the parameter obtained was in the range from 12.1 to 12.4 V, the device is low, it means that its density does not correspond to the norm. In other cases, detailed battery diagnostics and its recharging or replacement are required.

Table: Electrolyte density when checking a multimeter

Percentage of charge Electrolyte density, g / cm3 Battery voltage, in
100% 1.28. 12.7
80% 1,245 12.5
60% 1,21 12.3.
40% 1,175 12,1
twenty% 1,14 11.9
0% 1.10. 11.7

Electrolyte density measurement homemade device

The principle of measuring in winter or summer with the help of a self-made device is similar, and this tester can be constructed independently taking into account the following nuances:

  1. The main element of the area is the float, with which the measurement is made.
  2. As a tank, you can use a glass tube or other similar container.
  3. A switter or other bulk in the tube is poured into the tube, you can also use a piece of lead or other ship.
  4. Then the container is lowered into the water. In a place where water will be on the level, it is necessary to note the figure 1, this is due to the fact that this fluid has a density of 1 g / cm3. Then there is a graduation of values ​​for other solutions with a higher density.

How to measure the electrolyte level in the battery

Measurement of the level of working fluid is carried out like this:

  1. The first method is at the maximum and minimum mark - the electrolyte level should be between them.
  2. For the second verification option, the user needs to open holes in which banks are installed and inspect everything separately. It should be borne in mind that the volume of the electrolyte is the same in each hole (10-15 mm above the plates).
  3. To measure this method, you need to prepare a glass tube, the inner diameter of which does not exceed 5 mm. Then unscrew the cover on the battery and omit the tube inside until it rides the safety shield. After that, close the outer hole with your finger and get the tube. The electrolyte level in it is a measurable parameter.

Is it possible to check the level and density of the electrolyte in the non-servant battery

Check the level and density of electrolyte in a non-servant battery - according to special indicators that are equipped with batteries. Such tags change their color depending on the density and degree of charge electrolyte. To carry out such an inspection, it is necessary to find an indicator on the case, clean from dust and dirt and evaluate its color.

Then compare the indicator readings from the conformity scale, while usually:

  • Green color indicates that the battery is in order, the level of electrolyte and the charge is normal;
  • White - reports a weak charge and need to connect the charger;
  • If the red indicator, then this means that the acidity of the electrolyte rose, and the water level dropped.

Scale indicators on the battery

Check the level and density of the working solution on batteries without an indicator can be followed by such an algorithm:

  1. With the edge, on the cover with a drill and holes of a small diameter, six small holes are drilled. Through them, the user will be able to access each bank, so the distance between them must be appropriate. Before drilling the car owner should wipe the battery.
  2. Visually checks the level of fluid and adding it if necessary. Distilled water is used to replenish the volume. Using the carometer, the diagnosis of the density of the working solution is performed.
  3. After checking the user, the user will need to restore tightness. To do this, you can use silicone sealant or cold welding. In order for the material when performing the task, the material does not get inside the battery, it is necessary to straighten a part of the plastic sold in the manufacture of the hole. This can be done with a homemade metal hook.

If the battery case is damaged, the warranty will no longer be distributed on the device. If during the execution the user will make an error, the operation will be reduced. For example, dirt that fell into banks will reduce the service life and destroy the plates installed inside.

How to raise electrolyte density in banks

The channel "Denis Mechanic" in his videos described in detail about how to check and increase the density of the electrolyte in the battery.

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A source: https://kodobd.top/kak-proverit-plotnost-akkumulyatora/

Electrolyte density checking methods in batteries

At all, there are no rare situations when the engine does not want to start and arise with the launch. Quite often, the reason lies in the discharged battery. This becomes a consequence of changes in the properties contained inside the electrolyte. It must be raised.

But before starting measures to change the density, it is necessary to understand the reasons due to which such a situation originated. Just so the quality of the solution consisting of distilled water and sulfuric acid will not change.

Deciding with the reasons, it will be possible to properly carry out repair and recovery activities, extend the service life of the AKB and postpone the purchase of a new battery. In practice, influence the density is not so difficult at all.

Causes of density reduction

There are several factors affecting density indicators in electrolyte in batteries.

These include such moments:

  • The discharge of the battery. One of the main reasons why the electrolyte density falls in the automotive battery. In parallel with the decline in charge and density indicators are falling. Chargeing acb, density gradually rises. When the loss of a large part of the tank occurs, this indicates a change in the concentration of the composition aside.
  • Exploitation. Over time, the battery is wears natural, that is, long-term operation also affects acid.
  • Storage. Especially dangerous and harmful is long storage under reduced temperature.
  • Breaking. Electrolyte can pour when reloaded. This may occur under the influence of the charger or due to a faulty generator.
  • Water abuse. To maintain the electrolyte level, drivers often add water. But forget to use the density check device. In addition to water, acid loss can occur. Thus, adding water, the density changes.

If an accurate reason is set, due to which the electrolyte density in your battery falls, you can eliminate it without any particular difficulties. But it is important to understand that the ACB resource is not always depends on the density. It happens that without replacing the battery can not do.

What is the danger of high and low density

Not to all motorists are known to which the density of the electrolyte contained in the battery is affected, and how its change can affect the battery.

In fact, both low and high density observed in the electrolyte can put the cross on the battery and lead to the need to replace it.

When the concentration is higher than the valid rate, the battery is before its time fail. Acid gradually begins to destroy the plates.

In the low concentration, there is also nothing good. At the same time such processes flow:

  • Sulfate. This is the process of formation on plates from white solid leave. Because of him, Akb simply cannot take a charge.
  • Increases the threshold of freezing. If the acids are small, the solution can begin to crystallize even at -5 degrees Celsius. Ice crust deforms internal components, a short circuit can occur on the plates.
  • Impair the start of the engine. This will manifest itself mainly in the winter.

As you can see, the consequences of changing the density are different, but they all do not behave good for the car owner.

Right density indicators

Now it is natural to ask what density then should be in the car battery.

It is usually not provided for a significant change in the density in electrolyte in batteries in winter and in summer, focusing only for the period of cold weather.

There are special tables with electrolyte density parameters in batteries, depending on the climatic zone. That is, the ambient temperature is directly related to what the concentration of the mixture of acid and water should be in the battery.

If we talk about the battery operation under the hood of the car in winter, then the density and its norm must correspond to such values:

  • When operating the battery in winter, at a negative temperature, the density of the infiltable electrolyte should be 1.27 g / cm3.
  • If this is the extreme north with a temperature of -30 to -50 degrees, when pouring should be 1.27, and with full charge of AKB 1.29.
  • For the northern region with a temperature of -15 to -30, it is 1.26 and 1.28 g / cm3 for the filled electrolyte and with a fully charged battery, respectively.
  • When the temperature ranges from -4 to -15 degrees, then the electrolyte density table in the automotive battery suggests the maintenance of values ​​at 1.24-1.26.
  • If it is the southern region, when the temperature rarely falls below -10 degrees, and 1.22-1.24 g / cm3 is enough.
  • In tropical regions with a positive temperature, even in winter electrolytes with a density of 1.2-1.22 g / cm3 are used.

Yes, the density of the electrolyte used in the battery in winter or in summer is directly dependent on weather conditions.

Several adjust the density of the electrolyte in the automotive battery in the summer you need if there is a severe heat. The concentration is somewhat reduced.

The main condition for maintaining the performance of the battery is not the electrolyte density, but the battery charge level.

Therefore, try to always follow the degree of charge, in parallel using the area for checking the density.

How to check density

Next, you should talk about how you can check the density in the battery and that it will be necessary to use.

You can only check the density in the serviceable and low-service ACB, where there is access to the contents of the battery.

After all, closed types of batteries, which are considered maintenance-free, are not equipped with covers of cans. That is, they will not be able to unscrew the special device to estimate the state of the working fluid.

If you do not know how to check the electrolyte density parameters in batteries, see the following instruction.

To work you will need a specific set. It consists of:

  • protective gloves;
  • closed clothes;
  • glasses;
  • DenSimeter.

It is a densimeter that allows you to measure the density of the electrolyte contained in the battery.

This density measurement device is a glass tube with a pear, as well as a built-in hydrometer. In fact, it is a carometer that is capable of showing which electrolyte concentration in your battery.

Next, it remains to perform only a few step-by-step action.

We offer instructions on how to correctly check the density of the car battery serviced:

  • The battery is disconnected from the wires, the terminals are removed, the device is removed from the landing site. The protective casing should be removed and unscrew the corks with a grain tool.
  • Next, the level of the solution is checked. Usually it should be 10-15 mm. Above the level of plates.
  • If the battery is not charged, it should be connected to the charger. Upon completion of charging, you need to wait about 5-7 hours.
  • If the level of fluid is normal, the device is immersed in one of the cans, a slight solution is dumped.
  • The areaometer should be immersed in the mixture, do not touch the walls of the flask.
  • Data is read on the range and recorded.
  • The same procedures are carried out on the rest of the banks.
  • Comparison of the received information with the indicators of the norm.

It follows only at a positive temperature. Optimally achieved a range of 20-25 degrees Celsius.

The abbreviated battery has a color indicator that allows you to understand the current density and the state of the battery.

Basically, this indicator reflects the degree of charge. Green means a full charge, white - about 50%, and black - complete charge loss.

Features of raising density

Taking into account all the nuances, it is worth talking about how to raise density when the electrolyte concentration changes in the battery.

You can do it yourself. After all, to raise the reduced density of the electrolyte, no holes in the battery of the type of type do not have to do.

The measurement rate at room temperature is considered to be 1.25-1.29 g / cm3. If the indicators are below, you need to raise density. Reduced parameters Only in one bank indicates a short circuit.

There are several recommendations in order to increase the density of the fallen electrolyte in the battery itself. First you need to do the following:

  • Fully charge the battery, since it is impossible to check the density during the discharge. By adding the electrolyte, the concentration will increase dramatically and the destruction of the plates will begin.
  • Lead fluid temperature to normal. It follows in the range of 20-25 degrees Celsius.
  • Make sure that the level in each bank corresponds to the norm.
  • Inspect the AKB for damage and defects.

Next, the adjustment of the density parameters with the help of electrolyte is directly carried out to restore performance in the battery.

If the level is too low and fell below 1.18 g / cm3, such ankb is no longer restored.

If the density is higher than this threshold, it is required to increase. For this you need:

  • discharge the battery by connecting it to some consumer like a light bulb;
  • Prepare a correction electrolyte sold in stores;
  • With a pear, pump a small amount of mixture from each can;
  • add no more than 50% of the discharge of the new electrolyte;
  • put the battery for charging minutes to 30 to align the concentration in all banks;
  • give to stand across the memory with a minimum charging current;
  • Disable the battery.

After about 2-3 hours, repeated check is made. If the concentration is still insufficient, the procedure is repeated.

Increase with the help of

Separate attention deserves the question of how to raise the fallen density in its battery, using the charger.

The essence is to restore the gradually the density of the compound electrolyte by submitting the minimum current. There is no access to banks in the non-servant car battery. Here the only decision will put the battery on the memory and wait 1-3 days.

This will make it possible to gradually evaporate excess moisture, and thus the density of the acid-water solution will increase.

The electrolyte recovery procedure is not the most difficult, but when it is fulfilled, it is important to comply with a number of recommendations.

A source: https://remam.ru/elektrik/kak-proverit-plotnost-elektrolita-v-akkumulyatore.html

How to check the density of the battery at home

During the operation of the car, the owner often raises the question: how to determine the battery capacity and power supply power, how to check the battery density. The first and main inspection of the device is carried out when a car is configured and during the sale of the vehicle. In the event of a failure of the engine and other energy-dependent devices, auto check the battery charge at home or in the service center

Stages of the study of electrolyte

There are several reasons for the decline in the charge of the device. Only serviced ACB are subject to verification, the most frequent reason for the event is:

  1. Trips around the city;
  2. Use of the heating system in the cold season;
  3. Failures in the voltage generator.

The emergence of any of the listed signs is an indicator to measure the electrolyte for the unit . Before you check the electrolyte level in the battery, you must visually estimate the state of the device, check the level of the electrolyte, measure the density and voltage level of the battery. Treat reliable results will help checking the battery using the load current terminal.

Areometer for density check

Verification of the battery density is carried out in several stages. The device has a simple design, which allows to determine the density of fluid on the principle of the Archimedes Act. In appearance, the device resembles a hermetically sealed ampoule with an applied division scale. For calibration of the area, fraction and mercury are used. The device is sold in a set with rubber "pear" and a glass measuring flask, allowing to measure a solution without risk for fixtures

When working with the electrolyte, it is necessary to observe the measures of individual protection, Use rubber gloves and rubberized apron . Instructions, how to check the density of the battery provides for the following order:

  1. The battery is cleaned of dust and contamination;
  2. Place an aggregate on a flat surface;
  3. Remove with the cans of the lid;
  4. "Pear" is gaining electrolyte and merge into the flask;
  5. Lower the areaometer into the liquid.

An important condition for the procedure is Mandatory complete battery charging before checking the electrolyte density . The car owner should take into account that the process of charging the ACB is accompanied by the release of chemically active substance from the cans: hydrogen and oxygen, the compound of which can lead to an explosion. Avoid an unpleasant situation will help forced ventilation of the room. Charging time can last up to 6 hours.

Assessment of the number of conductor

After charging is complete, the battery needs withstand at least 6 hours . The condition is mandatory, since after exposure to the current, the electrolyte density remains elevated, after the "rest" solution of sulfuric acid issues more reliable indicators.

Before checking the electrolyte in the battery, you need Take a sample from the bank of the battery in an amount so that the range freely floats in the liquid .

Normally, the electrolyte density is from 1.24 kg / dm3 to 1.29 kg / dm3. If the resulting measurement result is below the norm, then the situation can fix a fresh solution. The technique of finding out how to properly check the density of the electrolyte in the battery, followed by actions, it is necessary to repeat with each bank with a periodicity of 1 time every 3 months. On visual assessment, the fluid must be transparent, have a high degree of purity.

Unclean sulfuric acid can cause an accelerated self-charge battery. Provide a normal level of electrolyte will also help distilled water, increased solution rates reduces battery life.

On the scale of the area of ​​the green strips, the level of permissible density of the solution is shown. With digital values ​​marked between the upper and lower limit of the fluid, the indicator is considered normal, the electrolyte is not required to add.

Reading the accompanies of the areaometer, it is necessary to remember that the acid concentration is necessary with a correction to the climatic zone, since individual density values ​​exist.

If the electrolyte density drops to a critical level, then no measures, except for checking the battery density at home with the addition of battery acid, will not help correct the situation. Check the electrolyte in the battery can be previously described after the addition of each portion of the acid. In the case when it is not possible to get the desired result, the liquid is best just replaced completely.

Recommended: Device, principle of operation and device scale AREETER

The replacement method is carried out after pumping the solution. Caps cans and ventilation valves of the battery are tightly closed, the battery is placed on the side.

In each bank, holes are made by a 3.5 mm drill, the residue of the liquid merges.

Empty banks are thoroughly washed with water, check for precipitate, the holes are sealed with an acidic plastic mass, a fresh solution is poured with a slightly greater density recommended for a single climatic zone.

Before starting the device, it is recommended to take the electrolyte concentration once again.

Also, without an acute need, one should not replace the electrolyte completely. If the acid must be diluted with water, then it should be remembered that the density of liquids is different. For this reason, the acid is poured into the water with a thin jet with constant stirring.

The handling of the power supply should be as cautious as possible, it is not possible to turn up the bottom due to a possible occurrence during the operation of a short circuit. Before screwing the covers on banks, it is necessary to use the recommendation of the specialists how to check the battery density of the carometer before operating the unit.

A source: https://proakkym.ru/avto/proverit-plotnost-akkumuljatornoj-bataarei.

How to check the battery density without a market?

The car batteries are mainly used lead-acid batteries. The electrolyte in them is sulfuric acid, or rather its aqueous solution. It is from its specific gravity and the normal operation of this component depends. This condition is also called the deterioration of the mixture.

It is measured in grams per cubic centimeter. Typical values ​​are at normal temperatures of 25 degrees Celsius. Main factors:

  • In the starter battery - 1.26-1.28.
  • In stationary - 1.22-1.23.

The permissible deviation does not exceed 0.01 g / cm3.

During the charge and discharge, any battery evaporates some amount of water inside. This leads to an increase in the concentration of hydrochloric acid in solution, which has a negative impact on the resource.

The intensity of evaporation has a dependence on parameters such as consumables used to assemble batteries, suitability and relevance of the equipment on which they are produced. Low density may occur due to the presence of a short circuit inside the housing while contacting plates, cliffs and too low levels of residual charge.

It is known that a decrease in the volume of water, which should be inside, negatively affects the operation of the AKB. Its excess can also lead to unpleasant consequences. So, overflowing through the edge of the mixture leads to serious corrosion of the housing and the surrounding parts, the destruction of contact terminals and the strong dissolution of the electrolytic fluid.

The principle of action of the area

To measure the density of fluids inside the battery, there is a special device - a ramometer. It looks like a large pipette, inside which is a working body with measuring scales applied to it. One of them allows measuring the density of the electrolyte, the other is the level of antifreeze.

The principle of the action of the area can be explained by the law of hydrostatic: the force with which the liquid pushes the object will be equal to its density. Thus, which it is more dense, the less significant will the effort with which she is trying to push the object immersed in its thickness.

The device is simple, it consists of such parts:

  • Flask for fence fluid.
  • Rubber pear, creating inside negative pressure, suction electrolyte.
  • Working body with a glass float, measuring scale and ballast, which allows it to be afloat.

To measure the density area, you need to make a few simple actions. It is worth noting that all procedures should be carried out at temperatures close to room values. If the battery before it was in the cold or under the influence of heat, it is better to give it to stand up to that moment when it gets warm or, on the contrary, cooled. This is necessary in order to remove as accurate indicators as possible: the temperature strongly affects the magnitude of the liquid density.

Principle of proper use of the device:

  1. Assembly. The floating body with a scale is placed in a fence flask, to which pear and pipette are connected.
  2. Next, you need to compress a pear, immerse the pipette into the liquid and type a small volume of electrolyte in it.
  3. Read indicators.

The scale of the device is usually done in such a way that any person will figure out in its indicators. In the case of measuring the level of electrolyte, the data will be as a percentage of the total volume of the fluid inside. If he is high, then the battery is charged and fed. If low - charging is required. When the float plunged below the critical value, the battery will have to be replaced, since the cause of this can be the cliffs of the electrical circuit inside or defective electrodes.

In order for the areaometer to serve longer, after each use you need to wash it with running water. The electrolytic liquid contains solutions of acids and giving metal ions, and therefore it can damage the glass components and lead to their failure.

Varieties of device

Since the density determination method by measuring the ejecting force can be applied not only in the case of autonomous power sources, there are several types of hydrometers. They differ in both the values ​​that are determined and for the purpose for various types of mixtures.

Since the value of the density in mathematical determination is the ratio of mass to the volume, the instruments are divided into hydrometers of constant mass and constant volume.

The scales applied to the floating body allow you to apply the device in different fields of practical measurements. For example:

  • Solemers - devices to determine the concentration of salts in aqueous solution. Used, among other things, in order to find out the degree of salinity of the soil of different areas.
  • Lactometers - measure the fatty of dairy products.
  • Alcoholters are the percentage ratio of alcohol and solvent fluid to determine the fortress of alcoholic beverages and fermentation products.
  • Sugarometers - allow you to find out the degree of concentration of sugars dissolved in water or other liquid.

In order to increase the accuracy of the operations on measuring the values, except for the pattern of the pattern with the scales, it is equipped with a thermometer. This allows you to achieve comparative results on the effect of temperature on a particular fluid and explore the mechanism of its change when warming or cooling.

Safety at work

One of the actors inside the battery is hydrochloric acid, so any fence of the measurement fluid is dangerous for a person. Security measures must be observed when working with the range meters.

All actions need to be performed in dense rubber gloves and clothing with long sleeves. To protect the eyes, you can use plastic or glass glasses. It is recommended to use a dense apron that will save clothes from damage.

If the electrolyte somehow still hit the skin or in the eye, it is necessary to immediately wash the area of ​​the defeat with a large number of running water to avoid damage to the tissues and organs. Neutralization of the active pitching here will not help, since the compounds obtained can only increase the burn. It is better to achieve a decrease in concentration by conventional water.

Due to the large toxicity of the substances formed inside the battery in the process of its operation and charging, it is necessary to conquer good ventilability of the room in which measurements will be performed. Otherwise, you can get serious breathing tracks and lungs with acids.

After working with the instrument, it needs to be thoroughly rinsed under running water to remove the acid from the surface of the intake pipette and the inner walls of the device. Corrosion and melting properties of acids can adversely affect the durability of the area.

A source: https://avtokent74.ru/plotnost-etektrolita-bez-areometra/

Measurement of electrolyte density in the battery

For the serviceability of the car battery, the electrolyte corresponds primarily. Its density varies in a wide range and depends on possible malfunctions or climatic zone of operation. For continuous operation of the AKB, the electrolyte density in the battery must be controlled. According to the evidence obtained, the decision is made to charge, adjust the density of the electrolyte.

Battery work

The car battery is a device for the accumulation of electrical energy produced by the machine generator. It consists of:

  • plastic containers;
  • Lead plates or lead with calcium additives;
  • electrolyte;
  • contacts;
  • Covers.

The main types of automotive batteries are three. The currently proven classic is a minority. It is inherent in self-discontinued and swallowing distilled water from electrolyte. But among the positive qualities there is no reaction to a deep discharge. Performance is restored by the usual charging.

Calcium type of batteries is resistant to overboard networks, vibrations, corrosion. Their performance does not affect the decrease in the level and density of the electrolyte. But with a strong discharge, an irreversible reaction begins - the sulfation of plates. The voltage drop on the contacts to 10.8 V threatens with a decrease in the capacity twice.

The hybrid type (antimony-calcium) is considered a golden middle. He absorbed all positive qualities from predecessors.

Electrolyte and its density

The electrolyte is a weak aqueous solution of sulfuric acid. When a discharge occurs, a chemical reaction occurs, resulting in water and lead sulfate. During charging, the chemical reaction proceeds in the opposite direction. Incomplete charging and discharge processes lead to a change in acidic density. Therefore, the electrolyte density check is required in the battery.

A source: https://pochini.guru/sovety-mastera/izmerenie-plotnosti-elektrolita.

Electrolyte density in battery

Analysis of the electrolyte from the battery and the measurement of its density helps the car owner to judge his chemical condition. The density of acid-containing fluid inside the cans of the battery depends on very many factors, so it is important to be able to correctly determine the value of this parameter depending on the operating conditions of the car.

What is the density of electrolyte

The density of any physical body or liquid is considered as the ratio of the mass of the substance to the volume occupied. This parameter for fluid filled into a lead battery banks is expressed in grams into a cubic centimeter.

Determine the density of the substance is visually not possible. Therefore, a special device is used to measure this parameter.

How can I take the density of the electrolyte

You can measure the electrolyte concentration using a medical syringe with a volume of 10 cm3 and accurate digital scales. The work is performed as follows:

  1. An empty syringe without a needle is put on the scales and the testimony of the measuring device is recorded in the notebook.
  2. A thin rubber tube dresses on the syringe, which goes into one of the batteries cans.
  3. In the syringe, exactly 10 ml of acid-containing fluid is recruited.
  4. The syringe, without a rubber tube, is put on the scales and the measurement result is recorded again.
  5. Fine arithmetic calculations are made:
    • From the mass of the syringe with the electrolyte, the mass of an empty medical product is subtracted.
    • The resulting value is divided by 10.

The result is the exact value of the density in one bank. Thus, you need to measure this indicator in all banks.

Each time the measurement is thus unprofitable for the time spent, nor for the convenience of the procedure. It is much more convenient and easier to measure the density of the acid-containing liquid of the battery using the hydrometer.

It consists of a special flask with an inside float. The inner part of the float has a lead Loading, so when downloading into the container of the liquid, this item is installed strictly in a vertical position. On the surface of the float there is a graded scale, which you can find out the exact value of the battery electrolyte density.

A source: https://istochnikipitaniy.ru/akkumulyatory/avtomobilnye/plotnost-elektrolita.html.

How to raise density in a car battery

> Batteries> Car Batteries

Car owners are often faced with the problem of engine failure from launch. This happens due to the discharge of the battery and deterioration of the properties of the electrolyte. Before raising the density in the battery, you need to find out the reason for the deterioration of the quality of the acidic solution. After that, you can proceed to the restoration of the battery. Actions do not represent special difficulties.

In the process of operation, a decrease in the battery density is a common phenomenon, especially when the old electrolyte is untimely replacing.

Why the electrolyte density is reduced

Factors contribute to a decrease in density:

  1. Discharge. When the charge loss is reduced and the density of the filler. In the process of charging, this parameter gradually increases. If the battery loses most of the tank, we are talking about the fall of the concentration of the acid.
  2. Long exploitation or storage under conditions of low temperatures.
  3. Switching electrolyte when reloading. If the charger supplies too high voltage, the liquid electrolyte goes into a gaseous state and is output through the holes available on the body.
  4. Frequent addition of water. Drivers add liquid to maintain a stable electrolyte level. Not everyone uses a rayometer measuring density. Together with water, acid is thrown out, which leads to a decrease in concentration.

An example of sulfation of a car battery plates.

Hazards low and high acid concentration

Increased electrolyte concentration causes premature battery output. Acid destroys metal plates. Even steel is sensitive to the effects based on sulfuric acid.

Low concentration leads to such problems:

  1. Sulfate. The plates appear on the plates consisting of lead sulphate. The battery becomes unable to take a charge.
  2. Increasing the frost threshold. The liquid is crystallized already at -5 ° C. Ice shifts and damages metal parts. When deforming the plates and short circuit of the capacities, the battery is not possible. At a density of 1.28 g / cm³, the electrolyte will freeze only at -58 ° C.
  3. Problems when starting the engine. This feature is most pronounced in the winter.

To verify the density of the electrolyte, they use a densimeter (right).

Checking the density of electrolyte

It is possible to determine the density of the electrolyte at home. The procedure is recommended at room temperature.

Before starting work, prepare such tools:

  1. Protective gloves, suit and glasses. The composition of the battery filler includes an acid. In case of contact with the skin, the substance causes a chemical burn. Acid couples are dangerous, so they work only in a well-ventilated room.
  2. Densimeter. The device is used to measure density. It has a glass tube with a pear and a built-in range.

Alone, the density measurement is performed as follows:

To check the electrolyte density, the end of the densimeter is immersed in the battery capacity.

  1. The battery is removed from the landing socket. The protective casing is dismantled, screwed the plugs.
  2. Check the electrolyte level. In lead-calcium batteries, the solution should close the plates by 1.5 cm.
  3. The battery is fully charged.

    Checking density starts 5-6 hours after completing the charging. At a normal level of electrolyte, the Densimeter tube is immersed in banks, pumping out a small amount of liquid filler.

  4. Evaluate the instrument indicators. The areaometer should float freely in solution. The contact of the device with the walls of the container is not allowed.

    Indications are evaluated based on ambient temperature.

  5. Check the electrolyte density in the rest of the banks. Indications are recorded and compared with normal density.

This method of checking is suitable only for the collapsible battery when there is access to the electrolyte.

The maintenanceable battery is equipped with an indicator, the color of which varies depending on the density of the filler.

How to adjust the density of the solution

Normal reading lies in the range of 1.25-1.29 g / cm³. If at a temperature of + 25 ° C is a lower value, it must be raised. A drop in concentration in one of the cans indicates a short circuit.

High values ​​are detected after charging with a powerful current accompanied by boiling electrolyte. It is possible to increase the density by adding acid, refueling the finished composition or use of the charger.

Cold Solution Density

In the cold season, the density of the filler of the charged battery should be 1.27 g / cm³. Additional adjustment in the regions with a harsh climate when changing the season is not carried out.

Table of electrolyte density dependence in the battery from temperature.

Preparing for the restoration of the battery

At the preparation stage, such actions are performed:

  1. Battery charge. It is impossible to start recovery at low charge. Adding an electrolyte contributes to a sharp increase in the concentration of acid. This leads to the destruction of metal plates, in which the battery is disposed of.
  2. Normalization of electrolyte temperature. The indicator lies within + 20 + 25 ° C. The electrolyte level in each bank should be normal.
  3. Inspection of the battery. The case should not have cracks and chips, especially near the conclusions. Damage contributes to swaying when trying to remove the accurate terminal.

Increased electrolyte density

If the density is more than 1.18, the finished composition with the normal concentration of sulfuric acid.

The procedure includes such steps:

  1. Battery discharge. The topping of the electrolyte is carried out only with full discharge. For this, the battery is connected to a powerful lamp or other energy consumer.
  2. Preparation of the correction component. The acid level in such a means should be at least 1.4 g / cm³.
  3. Adding a corrective composition. Preliminate part of the electrolyte existing. The density of the solution should rise to 1.25. The action is performed for each bank. The volume of the fluid being fused should be no more than 50% of the died. After adding the liquid, the battery shake, giving the filler to shuffle.
  4. Battery charge. The battery is left for half an hour, which allows concentrations to align in banks. The battery is connected to the charger for 30 minutes. The strength of the current must be minimal. 2 hours after stopping charging, the density and amount of filler measure the density. If the concentration does not rise, the above actions are repeated.

Is it possible to increase the minimum density

When the density drops to a mark below 1.18, the addition of acid turns out to be ineffective. To restore the battery, a solution is used containing greater than the electrolyte, the amount of active substance.

Before the fill of the new electrolyte old need to merge.

To replace the filler, perform such actions:

  1. Drain of content. The maximum amount of fluid roll out pear. Then the battery is placed in a large container and turn over side. In the bottom of each bank form a small hole. The battery is returned to the previous position and wait for the leakage of the liquid filler.
  2. Adding water. The liquid is poured through the covers of cans to remove the remains of the old filler. The previously made holes are closed with a polymeric material resistant to the effects of acids.
  3. Filling the battery with a new solution. If all actions are completed correctly, the battery becomes ready to use. The disadvantage of the method is to reduce the battery life. A few weeks the device will work, but then you will have to buy a new one.

How to increase with the charger

If the acid concentration fell over winter, it can be restored by supplying a weak current. Charging takes at least 3 days, it is considered effective if you cannot restore the battery with other methods. The contents of the full battery power when charging begins to boil. A sign of water evaporation is the formation of small bubbles on the surface.

Excess liquid evaporates, the acid concentration will increase. The overall level of the filler will become small, so you have to add a ready-made battery solution. After completion of the procedure use the range. If the instrument indicators are too low, charging and adding electrolyte repeat.

How to raise density in the car battery link to the main publication

A source: https://3batareiki.ru/akkumulyatory/avtomobilnye-akkumulyatory/kak-povysit-plotnost-v-akkumulyatore-avtomobilya.

Battery device

In general, describe the battery device as follows:

  • The case of inert plastic, resistant to aggressive impacts of electrolyte.
  • Inside the case there is a certain amount of hermetic modules called by banks, usually their six, interconnected positive and minus tires. In essence, each bank is a small battery, and the battery of their block, collecting and outstanding their overall stress.
  • Each bank contains packages that consist of consistently separated by dielectric separators of the cathode and anode, usually from lead-calcium alloy, which are filled with electrolyte.
  • On the lid there are a gas-conductive hole, carrying handles, terminals. In the case of a battery serviced, plugging holes closed by traffic jams. Unnwided - only eye electrolyte eye indicator.

Why measure the density of electrolyte in the battery?

Why measure the density of electrolyte in the battery?

Some car enthusiasts do not understand the importance of maintaining the optimal electrolyte density inside the battery. This can be done only when it is measured using various devices. The thing is that with the changed density, and it depends on the ratio of sulfuric acid and distilled water (35% and 65%), processes that may cause the destruction of the components of the battery or disruption in its operation. If the values ​​are enhanced, this indicates an excess of acid, which actively affects the plates up to their complete destruction. At low density, the amount of acid is reduced and because of this, the battery will not be able to dial its complete capacity.

!Important With long-term use of the discharged battery, the sulfation of plates occurs. It is impossible to solve this problem recovery of density and will have to send a battery for recovery.

Thus, conducting the electrolyte density measurement, identify the problems that have arisen and prevent the battery output.

What electrolyte density values ​​are considered the norm?

Before proceeding to electrolyte density measurements, it is necessary to know its normal value for the full functioning of the battery. In the manufacture of the battery on the factories, they are filled with electrolyte with an average density of 1.26-1.27 g / cm3. In general, this is enough to start its operation. But it should be borne in mind that over time this indicator changes and it has to return to optimal values. The main factor determining the magnitude of the electrolyte density is the temperature conditions of the car. If these are regions with a cold macroclimate, it should be 1.27-1.29 g / cm3, if we are talking about the middle strip, the value is reduced to 1.25 - 1.27 g / cm3, in the warm regions 1.23 - 1.25 g / cm3. The pattern is clearly traced that the lower the temperature at which the battery works, the higher the electrolyte density required for its normal operation.

!Reference In the manufacture of the composition for the fill, it is recommended to repel from the lower values ​​of the permissible range. Also take into account that there are sodium and potassium electrolytes and they are used in different proportions.

Electrolyte density check - appliances and action

Electrolyte density check - appliances and action

Before checking the concentration, it is necessary to make sure that the level of the solution corresponds to the necessary one. This is done like this: take a special glass tube (pipette), lower it into the battery bank until it stops and closes the top hole with a finger tube. The tube is removed and measured the height of liquid in it. It should fluctuate in the range of 10 - 15 cm. Put this measurement for each can. If the amount of fluid does not coincide with optimal values, the electrolyte is either cleaned or added. After that, you can proceed directly to the concentration measurement. To do this, you must follow a few simple rules:

  • Measurements are carried out for each bank;
  • The lid of the battery and corks must be cleaned of any contamination;
  • To obtain the most correct results, the AKB must be charged.
  • Immediately before measuring the battery is kept in room temperature at 20 - 30 degrees.

To measure the concentration, the areaometer is used or, as it is also called, the densimeter. Consisting of:

  • tip, which is lowered into jars to fence fluid;
  • The flasks in which the area will be located;
  • rubber pear;
  • Areometer.

So, the measurement process itself. The arometer tip is wiped and immersed in the open bay hole. Using a pear, a certain amount of acid solution is gained into the flask. To determine the density value, the densimeter is kept at eye level, while the range itself must be at rest and freely swim in the solution, without contacting any of the walls of the flask. As soon as these conditions are achieved, the number from the range of the range, determined by the level of fluid.

In the event that there is no possibility to use a carometer, the check is carried out using the autothesther voltmeter. It is connected to the battery terminals and the voltage is measured. Normally, it should fluctuate in the range of 11.9 - 12.5 volts. After that, the engine is breed and 2500 revolutions are gaining. Upon reaching this mark, the voltage must be within 13.9 - 14.4 volts. If the values ​​are recommended, the density value must be normal.

How to increase the density of the working electrolyte

In the event that, as a result of measurements, it was found that the concentration of acid is lower than the desired, the need to increase it. For this there are several ways:

  • recharge battery;
  • Full replacement of the electrolyte solution to the new one;
  • Adding a more concentrated solution;
  • Adding an acid.

For work, you may need: dimensional capacity, pear, soldering iron, drill. All tools must be washed and dried. You also need to keep the distilled water and electrolyte at hand.

If, after a set of revolutions, the voltage has not changed as described above, then starting to start recharging the battery. 10 hours the battery is charged with a current of current 10 times less than its container. After that, it is doubled and continue to charge for another 2 hours.

In case the initial voltage after a set of revolutions will be above 14.4 volts, the water is poured into the battery and it is charged.

If the battery is still quickly discharged, then the time of complete solution is coming. To do this, you need to roll out the maximum possible amount of fluid from each can, and its residue is neatly merged. To do this, all the holes of the device in the housing are completely sealed. Then it is put on the side and drill holes for a drain for each can. After that, the fluid is drained.

!Important It is strictly forbidden to install the battery on the lid. Otherwise, a short circuit may occur. And this will lead to the sanding of the surfaces of the plates. After the old electrolyte will be removed, the internal batteries are thoroughly washed with distillate. Then the soldering iron is placed by drilled holes, to complete tightness and poured a new solution through the holes intended for this.

In general, it is possible to increase or lower the density for each single bank with a high concentration electrolyte solution or distilled water.

If the density is higher than 1.18 g / cm3, then a concentrated solution is added. From banks choose so much liquid as possible and replaced half to concentrate. Its density should be higher than that that is needed for normal operation. The resulting solution is poured back and gently hurt for mixing. After a short period of time, check. Often the first time it is impossible to achieve the necessary values. Therefore, the procedure is repeated, but replaced only the fourth part of the source fluid. Until the result responds to action repeat each time reducing the volume of the substitution by 2 times. If the concentration is above optimal, then they are simply diluted with purified water.

If the measurements showed the values ​​below 1.18 g / cm3, then acid is used. The same actions are carried out as when diluted with concentrate, but replace a smaller part in order not to exceed the norm in the first cycle.

In the preparation of acid solutions, the acid is poured into the water, otherwise the risk of splashing the concentrate is high. All works are held in the working robe with protected hands and eyes.

What to do if the battery is maintenance

On this type of batteries, there are no traffic jams for the bay of liquid and, accordingly, access to banks, so you can only check the density of the electrolyte in one way. For it, the electrolyte indicator on the eye lid is twisted and measurements are measured through the hole for its attachment. It must be remembered that the obtained indicators will be accurate only for one can, so to speak empirically averaged for the entire device. It is not possible to enhance them independently because of the design features of the battery.

You can summarize that checking the battery density is the necessary service actions for its normal operation and the duration of saving the charge. If you refuse to do it, it is quite possible that instead of uncomplicated, you will have to acquire a new battery in exchange that has become unsuitable for operation.

The electrolyte density in the battery is the headache of the car owners who made the choice in favor of the collapsible battery. These batteries can be monitored and recharge, but for this you need to master a small science than we and we will deal with.

What electrolyte density values ​​are considered the norm?

The rechargeable battery is a chemical current source, and transformations occurring in it are reversible. The design of such devices is simple, they consist of a housing where electrodes, the converter and tires are placed. This is all closed with a lid with outlet holes and terminals. But the battery will not work without electrolyte. In lead-acid batteries, this solution of sulfuric acid, the density of which is measured in g / cm 3. It is proportional to the concentration of the solution, and the inverse relationship is traced relative to the temperature of the fluid. Checking the alkali electrolyte density will be carried out by car owners, in the machine of which nickel-cadmium or nickel-iron batteries are used.

Rechargeable batteries for cars

Rechargeable batteries for cars

By the electrolyte density of the automotive battery, you can determine the state of the battery. If the value dropped, then most likely some cell with a defect, there was a circuit breakdown or a deep discharge of the battery. For the latter case, the reduced density will be in all cells. If the battery does not hold charge, then check the condition of the fluid inside it. During the operation of the battery, water gradually evaporates, as a result, the electrolyte becomes more concentrated, which also negatively affects the state of the unit. This characteristic affects the battery capacity and determines its operational period.

Determination of the electrolyte density of the car battery

Determination of the electrolyte density of the car battery

It is very important to withstand optimal electrolyte density indicators in AKB, which largely depend on the climatic zone. In regions with a cold macroclimate, acid electrolyte density is better maintained in the range of 1.27-1.29 g / cm 3. In the middle lane, these figures change - 1.25-1.27 g / cm 3. In warmer districts, the normal density is 1.23-1.25 g / cm 3. Moreover, when the electrolyte is pouring it is better to prepare a solution at the bottom boundary of the specified ranges. For an alkaline battery, checking the density of the internal content should show 1.19-1.21 g / cm 3. Before preparation, it is important to specify the composition, there are potassium and sodium electrolytes, for each of them there will be their proportions to achieve the specified value.

Opinion expert

Ruslan Konstantinov

Expert on automotive topics. He graduated from IzhSTU named after M.T. Kalashnikov in the specialty "Operation of transport and technological machines and complexes." Experience professional car repair for more than 10 years.

In most cases, the electrolyte is a solution of sulfuric acid and distilled water in approximately in the proportions of about 2/1 (60% water and 40% acid). With this ratio of the battery plate, electric charge is able to accumulate. Many know about the density of electrolyte, but few know why this parameter varies from discharges and charges. When the battery is charging, water is output from the electrolyte, respectively, the percentage of the ratio begins to change in favor of the acid. When the battery is discharge, the concentration of the acid is reduced, on the plates, it begins to settle sulphates. With a deep discharge, the plates simply touches sulphates, which, with the next charge, will no longer collapse, the process of so-called sulfate occurs. This phenomenon is dangerous in that gradually the density will decrease strongly and charging will no longer help restore the performance of the battery due to excessive sulfate.

It is not necessary to experiment with an increase in density, some believe that it is simpler to use concentrated sulfuric acid, for example, during the operation of a car under conditions of critical temperatures. It is impossible to do it, sulfuric acid is one of the most powerful solvents, it simply can do a lead plate. Exceed the density of more than 1.35 g / cm 3unacceptable.

Electrolyte density check - appliances and action

Many motorists faced the situation when the electrolyte boosts after a long reloading and evaporates, then we pour distilled water. At the same time, the density of the solution is very rarely measured, and in vain. After all, the acid is also thrown out with water, and adding only distillates, you will get a mixture with a smaller concentration, which will negatively affect the performance of the device.

how to measure the electrolyte density in the battery

Pouring distilled water in battery

To measure the density of electrolyte in the battery, you will need a special device - a densimeter. It consists of a glass tube, which is placed a carometer, tip and rubber pear. We find the battery with a bay hole and immerse the tip of the measuring device into the solution. Then, with the help of pear, suck a part of the acid inside the glass case. Carefully keep the device at the level of the eye - the areaometer should be at rest, swim in the liquid, without touching the walls.

Electrolyte density measurements in battery

Electrolyte density measurements in battery

If there is no special instrument, you can check the electrolyte density in the battery and using a voltmeter. Connect to the battery terminals AutoTestster and measure the voltage. It should fluctuate in the range of 11.9-12.5 V. Then turn the key in the ignition and recruit 2.5 thousand revolutions. In this case, the voltage must reach at least 13.9 V, but not exceed 14.4 V. If no changes occurred, it means that it is necessary to simply charge the device.

How to increase the density of the working electrolyte?

What to do when the electrolyte density fell in the battery? Of course, it is necessary to restore it to the desired value. There are several ways:

  • recharge the battery;
  • Fully replace the electrolyte new;
  • add a more concentrated electrolyte;
  • Add acid.

Pre-prepare all the necessary inventory: dimensional capacity, pear, soldering iron and drill. All items must be clean and well dried. We also need distilled water and electrolyte itself.

First you should always try to recharge the battery. Check the battery voltage. After a set of revolutions, its value has not changed? Then it follows for 10 hours to charge the device with a current, which is ten times smaller than the container. For example, if it is 60 a * hour, then there is enough current 6 A. Then lower this value twice and also leave the battery on recharging for 2 hours. It is the second mode and lines the density of the electrolyte. And if the voltage with the engine center rises more than 14.4 V, then water should be pouring into the battery. Then put the battery for charging. If, after such events, the battery is still quickly discharged, then you need to work with an electrolyte.

Voltage checking AKB

Voltage checking AKB

To return the value of the electrolyte density in the discharged battery, you can completely replace the contents. To do this, roll out the liquid from each can, and then drain the remnants. To do this, hermetically close all the holes and turn the unit to the unit. We drill on the bottom of the hole from each can and drain the electrolyte. It is strictly forbidden to put the battery to the bottom, since a short circuit may occur in such a position, and the surface of the plates will turn . After the solution in the device is no longer, we are thoroughly rinsed with its purified water. Be sure to tightly seal the holes in the bottom of the device and pour a new electrolyte into it.

Usually the electrolyte density in batteries can be increased or lowering, topping the concentrated solution or purified water. First of all, the quality of the conductive substance is carried out in each bank separately. If the measurement showed a density of more than 1.18 g / cm 3, then you can simply dilute it with a more concentrated solution. To do this, select the maximum possible amount of electrolyte, half it with a solution with a greater concentration, which we strive to get (for example, we need 1.25 g / cm 3), and pour it all back. I chat the battery neatly to mix the updated composition well.

More concentrated electrolyte can be prepared by itself, then it is better to make 1.40 g / cm 3. Purchased, most likely, will be 1.27 g / cm 3, Then the process of increasing the density can delay a little.

Preparation of concentrated electrolyte

Preparation of concentrated electrolyte

After a small pause, density checks. You will find that it rose, but did not reach the desired number. Then we repeat the procedure again, only the dilution step is reduced to not jump the target mark. It is possible to replace a more concentrated electrolyte to replace a concentrated electrolyte. After each procedure, the measurement will show that we are getting closer to the cherished mark on the device. To accurately get the normal density of the electrolyte in the battery in this way it is difficult, probably, you are skipping the desired mark, but by the time it will be enough to add a little bit of clean water, because the dilution step will become quite small and the goal will be achieved.

When the electrolyte density is less than 1.18 g / cm 3, We will have to add acid. All operations are carried out in the same manner as in the method 3. Only the dilution step should immediately take small, because the acid has a very high density (about 1.8 g / cm 3), You can jump the desired mark from the first dilution. It is very important when preparing all solutions to pour acid into water, and not vice versa, so as not to provoke the splashing of the concentrate. Conduct work in a special robe, protect the skin and organs of vision. If the liquid has hit the body, immediately rinse the affected area with clean water.

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The electrolyte density in the battery is a very important parameter for all acid batteries, and each car owner should know: what density should be, how to check it, and most importantly, how to properly raise the density of the battery (specific acid) in each of the cans with lead plates filled with solution H2SO4.

Checking the density of electrolyte

Checking density is one of the items of the battery maintenance process, which also also check the level of electrolyte and measure the voltage of the AKB. In lead batteries The density is measured in g / cm3 . She is Proportional to the concentration of solution , but back dependent relative to the temperature Liquid (the higher the temperature, the lower the density).

By electrolyte density, you can determine the state of the battery. So that If the battery does not hold charge T. Check the condition of its liquid In every bank.

The electrolyte density affects the battery capacity, and its service life.

It is checked by a densimeter at a temperature of + 25 ° C. In case the temperature differs from the required, the amendments are made in the testimony, as shown in the table.

Pouring distilled water in battery

So, I figured out a little, what it is, and that you need to check regularly. And what are the figures to navigate how much good, and how much is bad, what should be the electrolyte density of the battery?

What density should be in the battery

The optimal electrolyte density indicator is very important for the battery and it is worth knowing that the necessary values ​​depend on the climatic zone. Therefore, the density of the battery must be established on the basis of the set of requirements and operating conditions. For instance, with moderate climate electrolyte density must be at the level 1.25-1.27 g / cm3 ± 0.01 g / cm3. In the cold zone, with winter to -30 degrees by 0.01 g / cm3 more, and in the hot subtropical - on 0.01 g / cm3 less . In those regions where winter is particularly harsh (up to -50 ° С), so that the battery does not frozen, you have to Rain the density from 1.27 to 1.29 g / cm3 .

Many car owners are wondering: "What should be the density of electrolyte in the battery in winter, and what summer, or there is no difference, and all year round the indicators need to keep on the same level?" Therefore, we will deal with the question in more detail, but will help you do, Electrolyte density table in battery With division into climatic zones.

Electrolyte density table

Nuance to know - the less electrolyte density in a fully charged battery, the Lucky last .

Also need to remember that, as a rule, the battery is by car, charged no more than 80-90% Its rated containers, so the electrolyte density will be slightly lower than with full charge. So, the required value is chosen a little higher, from what is indicated in the density table, in order to reduce the air temperature to the maximum level, the battery is guaranteed to be operational and not frozen in winter. But, touching the summer season, the high density can be threatened with boiling.

High electrolyte density leads to a decrease in the battery life. The low density of the electrolyte in the battery leads to a decrease in voltage difficult to start the engine.

Electrolyte density table in battery

The density table is relatively average monthly temperature in January-month, so that the climatic zones with cold air to -30 ° C and temperate with temperature are not lower than -15 do not require lowering or increasing the concentration of acid. Year round ( In winter and summer ) Electrolyte density in the battery should not be changed but only check and follow so that it does not deviate from the nominal value , But in very cold zones, where the thermometer column is often at the mark below -30 degrees (in the flesh to -50), the adjustment is allowed.

Electrolyte density table in battery

Electrolyte density in battery in winter

The electrolyte density in the battery in the winter should be 1.27 (for regions with winter temperatures below -35 at least 1.28 g / cm3). If it is a value below, this leads to a decrease in the electromotive force and the difficult launch of the engine in the frost, up to the freezing of the electrolyte.

Reducing the density to 1.09 g / cm3, leads to the freezing of the battery at a temperature of -7 ° C.

When in winter, the density in the battery is lowered, then it is not necessary to immediately run behind the corrective solution in order to raise it, much better will take care of the other - a qualitative charge of the battery using the charger.

The half-hour trips from home to work and back do not allow the electrolyte to warm up, and, therefore, it is well charged, because the battery takes the charge only after heating. So the discharge of day after day increases, and the result is density.

It is extremely undesirable to carry out independent manipulations with an electrolyte, only adjustment of the level of distilled water is allowed (in the passenger - 1.5 cm above the plates, and cargo to 3 cm).

For a new and serviceable battery, a normal electrolyte density change interval (full discharge - full charge) is 0.15-0.16 g / cm³.

Remember that the exploitation of the discharged battery at a minus temperature leads to the freezing of electrolyte and the destruction of lead plates!

On the table of dependence of the temperature of the electrolyte freezing from its density, you can find out the negative threshold of the thermometer column, in which the ice is formed in your battery.

g / cm³.

1.10.

1,11

1,12

1,13

1,14

1,15

1,16

1,17

1,18

1,19

1.20.

1,21

1,22

1,23

1.24.

1.25

1.28.

° S.

-8

-nine

-ten

-12

-14

-16

-18

-twenty

-22

-25

-28.

-34

-40

-45

-fifty

-54

-74.

As you can see, when charged with a 100% rechargeable battery will freeze at -70 ° C. With 40%, the charge freezes already at -25 ° C. 10% not only will not allow the possibility to start the engine in a frosty day, but completely freezes in 10 degree frost.

When the electrolyte density is not known, the degree of battery discharge is checked by the load fork. The voltage difference in the elements of one battery should not exceed 0.2V.

Load plug voltmeter readings, b

Battery harness,%

1.8-1.7

0

1.7-1.6

25.

1.6-1.5

fifty

1.5-1.4

75.

1.4-1.3

100

If the battery was discharged by more than 50% in winter and more than 25% in the summer, it must be recharged.

Electrolyte density in the battery in the summer

Summer battery suffers from dehydration , so considering that high density badly affects lead plates, better if it is 0.02 g / cm³ below the required value (especially concerns southern regions).

In the summer, the temperature under the hood, where the battery is often located significantly increased. Such conditions contribute to the evaporation of water from the acid and the activity of the flow of electrochemical processes in the battery, providing high current-mattress, even with the minimum permissible value of the electrolyte density (1.22 g / cm3 for a warm wet climatic zone). So that, when the electrolyte level gradually falls T. His density increases that speeds up the processes of corrosion destruction of the electrodes. That is why it is so important to control the level of fluid in the battery and when it is reduced to add distilled water, and if this is not done, it threatens the reload and sulfate.

A steadily overestimated electrolyte density leads to a decrease in the life of the battery.

If the battery is discharged by the driver's carelessness or other reasons, you should try to return it to him working status using the charger. But before charging the battery, they look at the level and adds distilled water, which could evaporate during the work.

After a while the electrolyte density in the battery, due to the constant dilution with its distillate, decreases, and falls below the desired value. Then the battery operation becomes impossible, so the need arises to increase the electrolyte density in the battery. But in order to find out how to raise, you need to know how to check this density.

How to check the battery density

In order to ensure the correct operation of the battery, Electrolyte density follow Check every 15-20 thousand km Run. Density measurement in the battery is carried out using such a device as a densimeter. The device of this device consists of a glass tube, inside of which an areaometer, and at the ends - a rubber tip on one side and a pear on the other. To check, it will be necessary to: open the battery bank plug, immerse it into the solution, and threw a small amount of electrolyte. A floating area with a scale will show all the necessary information. More detailed how to correctly check the battery density Consider a little lower, since there is another type of battery as non-servant, and the procedure is somewhat different - you will not need absolutely no devices.

The battery discharge is determined by the electrolyte density - the less the density, the more discharged the battery.

Electrolyte density table in a climate zone battery

Density indicator on a non-listed battery

The density of the battery is displayed in a color indicator in a special window. Green indicator testifies that Everything is okay (degree of charge within 65 - 100%) if the density fell and Requires recharge then the indicator will be the black . When the window displays White or red light bulb , then need urgent topping distilled water . But, however, accurate information about the value of one or another color in the window is on the sticker of the battery.

Now we continue to further understand how to check the density of the electrolyte of an ordinary acid battery at home.

Checking the density of the electrolyte, in order to determine the need for its adjustment, is made only in a fully charged battery.

Checking the electrolyte density in the battery

Checking the electrolyte density in the battery

So that you can correctly check the electrolyte density in the battery, the first thing is to check the level and adjust it if necessary. Then I charge the battery and only then proceed to check, but not immediately, but after a pair of quiet hours, because immediately after charging or the top of the water will be unreliable data.

It should be remembered that the density directly depends on the air temperature, so refer to the table of the amendments considered above. Having made a fence of the liquid from the battery bank, keep the device at eye level - the areaometer should be at rest, swim in the liquid, without touching the walls. Measurement is made in each compartment, and all indicators are recorded.

The battery charge definition table by electrolyte density.

Temperature

Charging

100%

70%

Discharged

Above +25

1.21 - 1.23.

1.17 - 1,19

1.05 - 1.07.

below +25

1.27 - 1.29.

1.23 - 1.25.

1,11 - 1,13

The electrolyte density should be the same in all elements.

The dependence of the voltage density in accordance with the charge

The dependence of the voltage density in accordance with the charge

A highly reduced density in some of the cells indicates the presence of defects in it (in particular, short circuit between the plates). But if it is low in all cells, it indicates a deep discharge, sulfate, or just obsolescence. Checking density in combination with a stress measurement under load and without, will allow you to establish the exact cause of the fault.

If it is very high with you, it's not necessary to rejoice that the battery is also not worth it, it may, he boil, in with electrolysis, when the electrolyte boils, the battery density becomes higher.

When you need to check the electrolyte density in order to determine the degree of charge of the battery, you can do this without removing the battery from under the hood of the car; It will take the device itself, the multimeter (for voltage measurement) and the measurement data ratio table.

Percentage of charge

Electrolyte density

g / cm³ (**)

100%

1.28.

12.7

80%

1,245

12.5

60%

1,21

12.3.

40%

1,175

12,1

twenty%

1,14

11.9

0%

1.10.

11.7

Battery voltage in (***) ** The difference in cells should not be higher than 0.02-0.03 g / cm³

. *** The voltage value is relevant for batteries that were at rest at least 8 hours.

If there is a need for density adjustment. You will need to select a certain amount of electrolyte with batteries and add adjusting (1.4 g / cm3) or distilled water with a subsequent 30 minute charging of the rated current and shutter speed for several hours to align the density in all compartments. Therefore, how to correctly lift density in the battery will be talked further.

Do not forget that limiting caution in the handling of the electrolyte is required, as it contains in itself sulfuric acid.

How to raise density in the battery

  • It is necessary to raise the density when it had to repeatedly adjust the level of the distillate or it lacks it for winter operation of the battery, and even after a repeated long-lasting recharge. The symptom of the need for such a procedure will be reduced interval charge / discharge. In addition, which is correct and fully charge the battery, there is a couple of ways to raise density:
  • add a more concentrated electrolyte (the so-called correction);

Add acids.

How to verify and raise the density in the battery.

To enhance and adjust the density of electrolyte in the battery you will need:

1) AREETER;

2) a measuring glass;

3) Capacity for breeding new electrolyte;

4) pear enema;

5) corrective electrolyte or acid;

6) distilled water.
  1. The essence of the procedure is as follows:
  2. A small volume of electrolyte is selected from the battery banks.
  3. Instead of the same amount, add a correction electrolyte if you need to raise the density, or distilled water (with a density of 1.00 g / cm3), unless it is reduced on the contrary;
  4. Next, the battery must be installed on the recharging to charge the rated current during half an hour - this will allow liquid to mix;
  5. Turning off the battery from the device, you will need to wait at least an hour / two, so that the density in all banks was leveled, the temperature decreased and all bubbles of gases were released in order to exclude the error in the control measurement;

Re-check the density of the electrolyte and, if necessary, repeat the procedure for the selection and topping of the desired fluid (still to increase or lower), reducing the dilution step, and then measure it again.

The difference in electrolyte density between banks should not exceed 0.01 g / cm³. If such a result failed to achieve, you need to make an additional, leveling charging (current 2-3 times less nominal).

Density indicator on a non-listed battery

To understand how to raise density in the battery, or can vice versa - you need a decrease in the specifically measured compartment of the battery, it is desirable to know which nominal volume in cubic centimeters. For example, the volume of electrolyte in one bank of the car battery at 55 AH, 6St-55 - 633 cm3, and 6st-45 - 500 cm3. The proportion of electrolyte composition is approximately this: sulfuric acid (40%); Distilled water (60%). Reaching the required electrolyte density in the battery will help the table below:

electrolyte density calculation formula

Please note that this table provides for the use of a corrective electrolyte with a density of only 1.40 g / cm³, and if the liquid is another density, then you need to use the additional formula.

To those whom such calculations seem very complex, it is possible to do everything somewhat easier by applying the golden section method:

We pump out most of the liquid from the Bank of the battery and pour into a measuring glass to find out the volume, then add half the amount of electrolyte, we string for mixing. If you are still far from the required value, then some more, the fourth part of the electrolyte-repurchased volume. So should be addressed, each time reducing the number is twice as well as the target is reached.

We strongly recommend complying with all precautions. The acidic environment is harmful not only when entering the skin, but also in the respiratory tract. The electrolyte procedure should be carried out exclusively in well-ventilated rooms with marginal caution.

How to raise density in the battery, if it fell below 1.18

When the electrolyte density is less than 1.18 g / cm3, we can not do with one electrolyte, you will have to add acid (1.8 g / cm3). We produce the process according to the same scheme as in the case of the addition of electrolyte, only the dilution step takes a little, because very high density and you can slip the desired mark from the first dilution.

When preparing all solutions, pour an acid into water, and not vice versa.

If the electrolyte has acquired a brown (brown) color, then frosts cannot be survived, because it is a signal to a gradual failure of the battery. A dark shade, turning into a black color, usually suggests that the active mass is treated with the plates, participating in an electrochemical reaction, and got into the solution. Therefore, the surface area of ​​the plates decreased - the restoration of the initial electrolyte density during the charge is impossible. The battery is just changed.

The average service life of modern AKB, subject to the observance of the rules of operation (not allowing deep discharges and reloads, including the fault of the voltage regulator), is 4-5 years. So make manipulations, such as: the drilling of the body, turning over to the drain of the entire fluid and its full replacement, do not make sense - this is a complete "game" - if the plates sprinkled, then nothing will be done. Watch out for charge, check the density on time, correctly serve the car battery and the maximum lines of its work will be provided.

The car with a bad battery is not a reliable vehicle. Experienced drivers know what the "left" battery is, and to which troubles, this eventually leads. In order not to happen unpleasant surprises on the road, the battery needs to be correctly and on time - including to know and how to independently check the battery density.

How to measure the battery electrolyte density? 2 methods of verification and 5 useful tips

Battery malfunctions

Most drivers are a sign of a discriminative starter or shit, and even silence at all under the hood of the car during the engine startup. This unpleasant moment is associated with the following faults:

  1. Malfunction of the wiring of the car. Perhaps somewhere disappeared, most often this is due to the partial absence of "mass".
  2. Malfunction of the retractor starter relay.
  3. Starter bus wear worst.
  4. Malfunction of starter windings.
  5. Low voltage in the chain due to the discharged battery.

The last reason is usually the most likely. The most logical move will be the check of the electrolyte density in the battery. From what it depends:

  1. From the climatic zone.
  2. From the time of year.

In order to correctly check the density of the electrolyte in the battery, you need to know its value and have a device called an areaometer.

How to measure the battery electrolyte density? 2 methods of verification and 5 useful tips

Find out the right density simply - there are special norms. The average of their indicator is 1.24 - 1.29 kg / dm 3. more accurately:

  • Cold regions - 1.27 - 1, 29 g / dm 3, in summer and winter;
  • The middle strip - 1.25 - 1, 27 g / dm 3;
  • Warm areas - 1.23 - 1, 25 g / dm 3.

It should be at least once every three months to check the battery density. Even a small deviation from the norm requires immediate dosage of the battery.

The indicators need to be closely monitored - so that the AKB worked as long as possible and did not let the owner in the most responsible moment. Especially she "does not forgive" the negotiable relationship in the winter. The fact is that its container is lost in the cold, and sometimes even one unsuccessful engine start leads to the discharge of the battery.

Having the simplest device, check the battery density at home does not represent much difficulty.

How to measure the battery electrolyte density? 2 methods of verification and 5 useful tipsDensity - density, but also at the level of electrolyte, it is necessary to monitor not with less attention, especially in summer, when the battery rolls more intensively.

There are a lot of opinions regarding the level of electrolyte in the battery:

  1. Some believe that it is enough to cover the grids of separators with this liquid.
  2. Others believe that the greater the level of electrolyte, the better.
  3. Third at all do not look at the battery corks - until the very moment when it stops turning the starter, which often causes a genuine surprise in such mountain owners.

Ask in the comments. Reply be sure!

If the level is low, it should be gradually pouring distilled water into the can, producing after each topping check. If the level is too high, which is also not the right indicator, then with the help of a steamometer, the excess liquid is pumped up. This method is the most reliable.

The need for charger

This very necessary device for the content of the battery is in good condition, it must have every car owner. With this device, you can always reflect the battery, without resorting to the service of a hundred or local "craftsmen."

How to measure the battery electrolyte density? 2 methods of verification and 5 useful tips

Having the right appliance with an ammeter, the driver will greatly do it. Battery Charging Procedure:

  1. You need to connect the charger to the battery.
  2. Turn on the device.
  3. Install charging current. Its value must correspond to ten percent of the battery capacity. For example: if the battery capacity is 60 A / h, then the current must be 6 amps, 63 are 6, 3 cars.

Charging time directly depends on the degree of discharge, which is determined by checking the battery density by the range. The scale indicates the discharge percentage. For example, the battery is discharged by 50% and has a passport capacity of 50 A / h. It follows from this that you need to reflect the missing 25 A / h. If you charge the battery into two amps, then it will be necessary to twelve and a half hours, and if the current indicator is four amperes - six hours 15 minutes. etc.

The principle is simple and understandable if it were not for one "but": each Akb has its own unique "nonors", especially when it is not new. She takes charging differently: faster or slower.

Pulling fluid

Many "light heads" are hotly advised in case of severe battery discharge to top up with sulfuric acid, which is unacceptable. Acid is not immediately mixed with the remaining liquid, and for this you need to charge the battery. In the meantime, the aggressive fluid will intensively destroy the plate, "eating" at the same time and the active mass - powder applied to them.

If you add the electrolyte, then the consequences will not be as deplorable, but such a liquid will also badly affect the state of the battery.

Only water is recommended. Exceptions are those cases when it is necessary to change the entire electrolyte, since the available in the battery is no longer charging because of the extremely low density.

If the density is too large, you need to pump off the range of liquid, and then add distilled water. Next, charging with a small current, not forgetting about periodic control of electrolyte density.

If the electrolyte is replaced, you need to prepare a new one. For proper preparation in a glass or acid-resistant plastic container, distilled water is first poured, and then, thin jet, acid.

By adding acid with small portions, you need to often check the density of the electrolyte, bringing it to the desired value, depending on the region of living and the season.

Safety technique

There are batteries that have a label on the housing indicating the level of electrolyte. It is not very convenient to use it, and there is no hope for accurate indicators. Here will help the proven "Dedovsky" method: a glass tube with an outer diameter of 5 - 6 mm. At its body, in the lower part, risks should be applied, indicating the correct level of electrolyte (according to the battery passport data). The tube is lowered into each bank alternately, until it stops into the separator grid. Then the top side of the tube is stuck with your finger, and the device is removed from the can, without releasing the finger. The fluid will remain in the tube, and its exact level will be visible.

  1. While working with acid or checking the battery density, caution must be taken:
  2. Work only in overalls, which is not sorry to throw away. Even electrolyte, not to mention concentrated acid, easily leads any clothes and shoes into the deplorable state.
  3. It is necessary to work in rubber gloves to prevent possible chemical burns. Even measuring the battery density is not without them.
  4. Safety glasses either do not interfere, especially when preparing an electrolyte when the risk of this aggressive fluid into the eyes is especially large. Some people are inexperienced by water into acid, and not vice versa, as it should be, and as a result its splash can occur.
  5. Before charging, the battery should be properly connected to the device, not in the polarity.

Do not forget about efficient ventilation. If there is no compulsory exhaust, then a well-ventilated room is quite suitable.

During such works, smoking is prohibited. It is important to remember that the acid consists of hydrogen, which is explosive, and this is especially probably when the maintenance of a large number of acb is carried out.

After charging the battery, you must need to check the purity of the ventilation holes in traffic jams of all cans, and even better - turn them completely.

Battery must be protected from shocks.

Output

It is impossible to turn the battery to the bottom, especially if the battery is already "in age." The tremended active mass, the reserved peacefully resting at the bottom of the building, the plates will be closed. Attaching the battery to his staff, it should be remembered that it does not like short circuits that arise as a result of careless work with him.

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